One of the most useful substances for soil are nitrogen fertilizers, such as manure. Their nutrients are very easily assimilated by plants. However, such fertilizers should be applied with caution. To prevent the contamination of vegetation by microbes that may be present in such fertilizer, try to introduce them into the soil three months before you start to harvest. Also note that some of the substances contained in the manure quickly enters the groundwater and thus pollute them. In addition, the frequent use of fertilizers may lead to a glut of plant nutrients such as phosphorus.
One way to avoid many troubles when using nitrogen fertilizers to produce them on the basis of the compost. It is more gentle soil substance which is already in the process of decomposition. Compost is a fertilizer which is made from almost any organic waste. Using it regularly in small amounts provides the soil with nutrients that significantly improve its quality, allow for a longer period hold in moisture and help to deal with many pests. There are several types of compost, such as leaf compost formed by combination of green and dry leaves, or vermicompost, which is a by-product of processing nutrients earthworms.
Planting cover crops
Growing cover crops is very beneficial in the fertile qualities of the soil. These plants provide the soil with many nutrients. In addition, the root systems can saturate the ground with water and oxygen.
One of the most valuable cover crops are legumes (beans, clover, alfalfa, etc.). They convert the nitrogen in the atmosphere into a form readily accessible to other plants. The combination of these cultures is also very useful for the soil, it increases the volume of biomass entering the soil, and the complexity and diversity of root systems will improve soil structure.
Another way of improving the fertility of the land – mulching. This process involves coating the surface of the earth with organic matter, such as straw or fallen leaves. Mulch allows soil to retain moisture and to avoid sharp difference of temperatures.