What is RH factor?
Human blood consists of red cells – erythrocytes. In some cases, their surface contains antigens of group D, in such situations, talking about the positive RH. These substances are present in the blood approximately 85% of people, the remaining 15% negative RH factor, that is, they have these antigens are absent. In the blood there are other antigens, but their presence is not of such great importance in blood transfusion or pregnancy.
Transfusion of RH-positive blood to a person with a negative RH factor leads to the destruction of red blood cells, which causes the so-called pathological hemolysis – this is immune response to unfamiliar substances. People with a negative rhesus factor need to be taken when blood transfusion. You should also pay attention to their RH factor in pregnancy: RH negative mother and a positive father can cause rhesus incompatibility and lead to the development of hemolytic jaundice in the child, stillbirth or infant death.
RH positive people can receive blood from any RH factors, and pregnant women with this blood should not be afraid of conflict, even if the father is RH negative.
How is rhesus factor inherited?
The genes for RH factor are inherited according to the same principles as any other genes. So, when you inherit the dominant RH positive: in most cases, the "meetings" of the two genes responsible for different RH factors, wins the one who is responsible for positive. But not in all cases: even with a positive RH factor from both parents, a child may be born with a negative, but the probability of this is less. This happens because the alleles of the parents can attend different genes: one is dominant, causing a positive RH, and the other just exists but does not manifest itself. Since the formation of gametes alleles are divided into two parts, at the time of conception can meet the egg and sperm with the genes responsible for negative RH factor. In this case, and the child inherits the RH.
Clearly we can only assert that parents with negative RH-factor is going to be the same child as their genotype no gene responsible for the presence of antigens on erythrocytes. If one parent is RH negative and the second positive, then the child is equally likely to inherit one and the other.
Advice 2: As inherited epilepsy
Heredity plays an important role in most cases of epilepsy. But although the disease is considered genetic, a number of other external factors that determine the intensity of the symptoms also has an effect on the probability of its manifestation.
It is accepted that epilepsy may arise as a result of serious head injuries. However, epilepsy appears not all people who have hit my head. It is the patients who have relatives with a history of seizures and epilepsy, are at risk. The people who have a history not have relatives with genetic disorders, significantly less likely to receive this diagnosis.
With the development of the disease plays an important role in his character, and variety. So, the vast majority of cases of generalized epilepsy is caused by genetic factor. Partial or local forms is often found in people who have had brain injury without a primary inheritance.
The risk of transmission
The disease is not transmitted any other way than genetic. At risk are brothers and sisters of people who have a confirmed case of epilepsy or epileptic seizures. However, most next of kin may not show symptoms of the disease. The disease most often occurs if it has a generalized character, which is expressed in the bilateral brain damage; partial and local epilepsy affect only a certain portion thereof.
The majority of children suffering from symptoms of the parents show no signs of the disease. However, there is a risk of transmission of epilepsy through several generations. The probability of occurrence of disease of the child from the sick mother is about 5%. The risk of inheriting the disease on my father's side is a little higher and according to certain studies is approximately 6%. The likelihood of transmission is increased if both parents are carriers of epilepsy. At the present stage of development of medicine has not found all the genes that are responsible for the inheritance of the disease.
Bouts of the disease can be controlled with anticonvulsants. Healthy living and compliance with prescribed therapy significantly reduce the frequency of outbreaks of epilepsy and even completely prevents any manifestations in the future. It should be noted that the success of the treatment depends on its type. As a result of the medication about 5 out of 10 people may not have seizures for over 5 years. The rest can be episodes of seizures, which, however, will have a lower intensity. The prescribed treatment may not work in patients with generalized epilepsy.
Advice 3: Can change the RH factor during the life
RH factor is one of the most important characteristics of human blood along with blood group. So, for example, the RH factor is one of the options considered in blood transfusion.
RH factor is a parameter of the blood of the person who actually represents the presence or absence in his blood a special component - antigen D. if the blood of a particular individual has such antigen, to say that he has a positive RH factor or rhesus positive just. Otherwise, about him saying he has a negative RH factor. Thus, there is only two main variants of the RH factor: intermediate values in this sense can not be.
Negative RH factor is not a pathology: in such a situation people can live a normal life and be perfectly healthy. However, the negative RH factor is much less widespread in comparison with positive. According to doctors, about 15% of all people living currently on Earth, have a negative RH factor; consequently, the remaining 85% have RH positive.
The formation of the RH factor
RH factor is a characteristic that is passed from parents to children through inheritance. Thus, it is an innate characteristic of a person and can not change throughout life. In this regard, it is important to know your RH factor along with the blood type: it can be useful in emergency situations that threaten life, for example, when you want an urgent blood transfusion. One day remembering this information, you will not have to worry about that it can become irrelevant.
If both the father and the mother of the child have a positive RH factor, in most cases, the child will also be RH positive. A similar situation is associated with negative RH factor of both parents. The most complicated case, doctors believe a situation where the child's parents have different RH factors: e.g. mother, he is a positive and dad is negative.
The main difficulty in this situation stems from the possibility that the occurrence of so-called rhesus-conflict in which the RH factor of the child in the womb different from her own RH factor. This can cause various complications during pregnancy including the threat of interruption. Therefore, prospective parents who expect the child, it is helpful to determine the compatibility of their rhesus factors. And if they seem various, you should carefully monitor the pregnancy and to carefully follow the doctor's orders: this will allow you to overcome the situation without much difficulty.