Encephalopathy: causes, types of diseases
Encephalopathy is a modular concept, which means a variety of pathological condition or disease. It can occur in adults and in children. There are congenital and acquired encephalopathy. Congenital appears due to the negative damaging factors at birth, developmental abnormalities, genetic defects. Risk factors for its development are premature or late delivery, multiple pregnancy, taking certain medicines during pregnancy, maternal age (less than 20 years or more than 40).
Symptoms of congenital encephalopathy: frequent crying, restless behavior of the newborn, inadequate reaction to sound and light, bulging eyes, a throwing back of the head, frequent vomiting.
Residual encephalopathy develops over a period of time after perinatal encephalopathy. To provoke its appearance can inflammation or infection of traumatic brain injury, increase in blood pressure. Acquired encephalopathy can be of several types. PTSD occurs because of traumatic brain injury. Develops as a result of toxic action on the organism of bacterial toxins or neurotropic.
Radiation encephalopathy causes an action on the brain to ionizing radiation. Metabolic encephalopathy appears at the diseases of internal organs. As a result of chronic circulatory disorders of the brain develops vascular pathology. Discirculatory encephalopathy are due to pathological changes of brain tissue due to vascular brain disorders.
Diagnosis and treatment of encephalopathy
There are three degrees of dyscirculatory encephalopathy. First degree is characterized by irritability, memory loss, headaches, troubled sleep. Second degree manifested severe symptoms: constant headache, memory loss, lethargy, apathy, sleep disorder. The third degree is characterized by severe changes of the brain tissue is disturbed it there are paresis, vascular parkinsonism. In the diagnosis of encephalopathy is a big role playing history data of the disease. Also used electroencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography. Conduct the study of the biochemistry of blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid.
As additional treatment of encephalopathy prescribe physiotherapy and reflexology, breathing exercises.
Therapy of encephalopathy is aimed at the elimination of symptoms, and the treatment of the disease, which contributed to the defeat of the brain. In severe acute encephalopathy prescribe hemodialysis, hemoperfusion, and mechanical ventilation, parenteral nutrition. Use drugs that reduce intracranial pressure and prevent the development of seizures. Also prescribe drugs that improve blood flow to the brain.