The principles of the European Union
In 1992, he was legally registered and bonded by the relevant Treaty of the European Union, which includes countries, former members of the European economic community. Gradually developed a system of standardized laws that were in effect in all countries of the Union. Began intensively to develop the common States market, was introduced the free movement of citizens, capital and goods.
The European Union adopts legislative acts, regulations and directives in the field of internal Affairs and administration of justice, elaborates the same for all members of the community policy in the field of economy and trade.
Part of EU countries have decided to introduce uniform for all currency named "Euro".
The European Union is a full – fledged subject of international law. He is empowered to conclude contracts of an international character and participation in international relations. Common to member countries of the EU security strategy provides for the introduction of agreed and approved these countries ' foreign policy and the maintenance of the measures for defense. The representative of the European Union acts in the United Nations.
Formally, the European Union is neither a separate state nor an international organization. In a number of areas of activity of Executive decisions are made by individual States, often the consideration of issues takes place in the course of negotiations between the member countries of the Union.
Which countries belong to the European Union
Today the European Union consists of twenty eight States. Their list, with the division of countries by year of EU membership, is as follows:
- 1957: Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg, Germany, France, the Netherlands;
- 1973: UK, Ireland, Denmark;
- 1981: Greece;
- 1986: Portugal, Spain;
- 1995: Sweden, Austria, Finland;
- 2004: Cyprus, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Malta, Slovakia, Poland, Slovenia, Estonia, Czech Republic;
- 2007: Romania, Bulgaria;
- 2013: Croatia.
In addition, candidates for accession to the European Union to date are Turkey, Serbia, Macedonia, Iceland, Montenegro.
It should be noted that the following list takes into account the membership of the former European economic community.
With the initial six States to the Union increased to the current number of members through successive enlargements. New countries joined on a contractual basis. If this was a limitation of their sovereignty, and in exchange, the government received representation in the Union structures.
Advice 2: Which European country outside the EU
The European Union is a Union of 28 States, which was enshrined in the 1992 rules of the Maastricht Treaty. At the end of 2012, the proportion of countries that enterprises in global GDP was 23%, or 16.6 trillion dollars. Political centres of the European Union are in Brussels, Luxembourg and Strasbourg, and lead them by the European Council, Commission, Parliament and Council of Ministers.
A little about the European Union
Currently, the composition of the state enterprises includes the following countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, UK, Hungary, Germany, Greece, Denmark, Ireland, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Finland, France, Croatia, Czech Republic, Sweden and Estonia.
At the beginning of the European unification back in the 90's of last century, the first members of the European Union were six States: Belgium, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and France. Then they were joined by the other 22 countries.
The main factors or rules of joining the organization are compliance with the criteria laid down in 1993 in Copenhagen and approved at a meeting of members of the Union in Madrid two years later. Member States must respect the basic principles of democracy, to respect freedom and human rights, as well as the foundations of the rule of law. Potential member organizations must have a competitive market economy and to recognize those already adopted in the European Union common rules and standards.
The European Union has its motto – "Harmony in diversity" and the anthem "Ode to joy".
European countries that are not members of the European Union
To European countries, not members of the organization include the following:
- Great Britain, Liechtenstein, Monaco and Switzerland in Western Europe;
- Belarus, Russia, Moldova and Ukraine in Eastern Europe;
- the Nordic Iceland, Norway;
- Albania, Andorra, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Vatican, Macedonia, San Marino, Serbia and Montenegro in southern Europe;
- partly in Europe, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan and Turkey;
- and the unrecognized state of the Republic of Kosovo and Transnistria.
Currently in the status of possible candidates for membership in the European Union are Turkey, Iceland, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro.
Western Balkan countries – Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, already included in this program to expand. However, the last state is not recognized by the European Union as an independent due to the fact that the secession of Kosovo from Serbia is not recognized by all members of the organization.
Several so-called "dwarf" States Andorra, the Vatican, Monaco and San Marino, despite using the Euro, still maintains relations with the European Union on agreements on partial cooperation.