A little about the European Union
Currently, the composition of the state enterprises includes the following countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, UK, Hungary, Germany, Greece, Denmark, Ireland, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Finland, France, Croatia, Czech Republic, Sweden and Estonia.
At the beginning of the European unification back in the 90's of last century, the first members of the European Union were six States: Belgium, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and France. Then they were joined by the other 22 countries.
The main factors or rules of joining the organization are compliance with the criteria laid down in 1993 in Copenhagen and approved at a meeting of members of the Union in Madrid two years later. Member States must respect the basic principles of democracy, to respect freedom and human rights, as well as the foundations of the rule of law. Potential member organizations must have a competitive market economy and to recognize those already adopted in the European Union common rules and standards.
The European Union has its motto – "Harmony in diversity" and the anthem "Ode to joy".
European countries that are not members of the European Union
To European countries, not members of the organization include the following:
- Great Britain, Liechtenstein, Monaco and Switzerland in Western Europe;
- Belarus, Russia, Moldova and Ukraine in Eastern Europe;
- the Nordic Iceland, Norway;
- Albania, Andorra, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Vatican, Macedonia, San Marino, Serbia and Montenegro in southern Europe;
- partly in Europe, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan and Turkey;
- and the unrecognized state of the Republic of Kosovo and Transnistria.
Currently in the status of possible candidates for membership in the European Union are Turkey, Iceland, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro.
Western Balkan countries – Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, already included in this program to expand. However, the last state is not recognized by the European Union as an independent due to the fact that the secession of Kosovo from Serbia is not recognized by all members of the organization.
Several so-called "dwarf" States Andorra, the Vatican, Monaco and San Marino, despite using the Euro, still maintains relations with the European Union on agreements on partial cooperation.
Advice 2: Which countries belong to the European Union
The modern world is slowly but steadily moving towards integration. Even cultural and national differences may prevent the Union of countries into alliances based on joint economic and political activity. One of these unions – the European Union, which is constantly expanding.
The principles of the European Union
In 1992, he was legally registered and bonded by the relevant Treaty of the European Union, which includes countries, former members of the European economic community. Gradually developed a system of standardized laws that were in effect in all countries of the Union. Began intensively to develop the common States market, was introduced the free movement of citizens, capital and goods.
The European Union adopts legislative acts, regulations and directives in the field of internal Affairs and administration of justice, elaborates the same for all members of the community policy in the field of economy and trade.
Part of EU countries have decided to introduce uniform for all currency named "Euro".
The European Union is a full – fledged subject of international law. He is empowered to conclude contracts of an international character and participation in international relations. Common to member countries of the EU security strategy provides for the introduction of agreed and approved these countries ' foreign policy and the maintenance of the measures for defense. The representative of the European Union acts in the United Nations.
Formally, the European Union is neither a separate state nor an international organization. In a number of areas of activity of Executive decisions are made by individual States, often the consideration of issues takes place in the course of negotiations between the member countries of the Union.
Which countries belong to the European Union
Today the European Union consists of twenty eight States. Their list, with the division of countries by year of EU membership, is as follows:
- 1957: Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg, Germany, France, the Netherlands;
- 1973: UK, Ireland, Denmark;
- 1981: Greece;
- 1986: Portugal, Spain;
- 1995: Sweden, Austria, Finland;
- 2004: Cyprus, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Malta, Slovakia, Poland, Slovenia, Estonia, Czech Republic;
- 2007: Romania, Bulgaria;
- 2013: Croatia.
In addition, candidates for accession to the European Union to date are Turkey, Serbia, Macedonia, Iceland, Montenegro.
It should be noted that the following list takes into account the membership of the former European economic community.
With the initial six States to the Union increased to the current number of members through successive enlargements. New countries joined on a contractual basis. If this was a limitation of their sovereignty, and in exchange, the government received representation in the Union structures.
Advice 3: What country is Brussels
Brussels — the capital of the Kingdom of Belgium is the city of all colors "of the rainbow civilization". The city of Europeans. Situated on the river Senna, Brussels is often called the capital of Europe. Here are located the headquarters of NATO, the European Union and the Benelux countries.
A bit of history
The sources of 966 g. first mention of the city of Brussels. "The city of the marshes" — as translated from the Flemish meant the word "Bruxelles" at the time. He appeared on the crossroads of trade routes between Bruges and Cologne as the center of the Spanish Netherlands. Then, during the reign of king Charles V, 1530 Bruxelles became the main city of the Spanish "Lower Land", in the language of the Flemish sounded like Nideren Landen. Hence the modern name of the neighboring Netherlands. In ancient times Belgium is South of the Netherlands. Also known the name Holland. This is the error that came into wide use from the time of Peter I. In fact, it is two provinces North and South Holland in the composition of medieval the United Kingdom, Belgium and the Netherlands, which was visited by Peter I. Then returning to Russia, he and his entourage were told that these were the Holland.
Brussels in our days
The town is divided into upper and lower. The lower Brussels is a crowded maze of medieval streets surrounding the Grand place. Four blocks of this district are the most beautiful sights of the old city: the national Opera house, the famous statue-fountain "Manneken Pis"; according to legend, he saved the town from disastrous fires. Bruparck, where is the Museum of Mini-Europe. A huge variety of restaurants, surprising variety of gastronomic delights.
Top Brussels is a modern business centre of the country with wide boulevards, squares and majestic buildings. Along with Luxembourg and Strasbourg, is a French political centre of the European community.
Brussels — an international city where you can hear it in many languages. Residents speak French, Flemish, Walloon languages. But also freely they can speak English and German.
The features of geography
The main border of Belgium from the Atlantic ocean for 70 miles is the North sea. King Leopold II once said: "How can a country be small when it is bordered by the ocean?" Geographically, the country is divided into Low, Middle and Upper Belgium.
Low Belgium is Flemish lowlands, dotted by hills with sandy soil, pastrama dams and drainage channels. It is the land under threat of flooding. Next — Kempinski landscape consisting of corn fields and coniferous woodland.
The average Belgian is the result of urbanization of coastal lowlands and reclaimed territories by the ocean, natural landscapes in Central Belgium are quite rare. This is a very fertile land with extensive pastures and meadows, between which there are rural estates.
High Belgium more mountainous and has lots of forests. This is a less populated area of the country. Agriculture is little developed. All the territory crossed by the river Scheldt.
In the South of Belgium is bordered by France, on the North by the Netherlands, on the East by Germany and Luxembourg.