# Advice 1: How to determine where North, South, West and East

The location of the cardinal points it is easiest to determine using the compass, but not always, this device is at hand. Fortunately, there are several ways to find the coveted four sides.
You will need
• Watch
Instruction
1
If you get lost in the daytime, and you have got a watch, you identify the part of the world. The main thing that day was quite Sunny. To start, position the watch horizontally: the easiest option is to put them on the palm. Then turn the watch so that the hour hand was pointing directly at the sun. Now mentally divide in half the angle formed between the hour hand and 12 o'clock (winter time) or hour (for summer). Held an imaginary bisector indicate the direction to the South. For example, if you get lost in the winter, about four o'clock, heading South, the line will pass through figure 2 on the dial of your watch.
2
If you get lost around noon (at about 13 o'clock daylight time), to determine the location of the cardinal points will be even easier. To do this, stand with your back to the sun and spread your arms out to the sides. Behind you is South, on the front (where the shadow falls) in the North, the left hand will point West and the right East.
3
Directions also can be determined by the movement of the sun. Early morning – 7 hours – it appears in the East. By 10 a.m. the sun is in the South-East. In the hour of the day (and in winter in the afternoon) it is in the South. In four hours the sun can determine the direction of the South-West, and at seven in the evening light will be in the West. However, in the winter, when the sun rises late and sets early in to the movement East and West can sometimes be problematic.
4
If you need to determine the part of light night, in this case, you will need a minimum knowledge of astronomy. If the night sky is sufficiently clear, and the stars on it are clearly visible, you will be able to determine the location of the North. For this you will need to find the North star, and mentally draw from it a steep line down to the ground. The resulting point will show you the direction to the North. If you have difficulties finding the North star, first find the constellation URSA major. Pay attention to the stars forming the dipper. More precisely, two of them located on the opposite side from the handle of this ladle. Now mentally measure the distance between the two stars five times set it up from the bucket, continuing these stars formed a line. So you'll find the last star in the handle of the little dipper – Polar. However, this method will only work in the Northern hemisphere.
5
Ate at the sky the moon is visible, then find the compass will help its position on the sky. To start, determine the phase of the moon: first quarter (growing Crescent moon, "horns" which look to the left), second quarter (full moon) and third quarter (aging Crescent, looking like the letter "C"). If the moon is in first quarter, at 7 p.m. she will be on the South, and in the morning – in the West. Full moon at 7 PM will appear in the East in the morning – in the South, and at 7 am in the West. Waning moon in the morning will show you to the East, and at 7 a.m. –to the South.

# Advice 2 : How to define cardinal directions by the sun

Modern navigation devices allow you to accurately navigate the terrain. However, they have one significant drawback: they require energy sources. When you are required to look for other ways to determine its location is not so rare. One of the most common ways is the orientation of the sun.
You will need
• - mechanical or Electromechanical watch.
• - map of the area.
Instruction
1
Going camping, bring the usual clock arrow. Better if they are mechanical, because they do not depend on batteries. You can use Electromechanical in a waterproof case. Before you embark on a journey to change their battery. To verify the standard is necessary in any case.
2
Locate location of any perceptible object. It can be a train station, a large building, pond, etc., the Object must be marked on the map.
3
Position the dial so that the hour hand pointed to the sun. Being in a country where the common time more or less corresponds to the astronomical mentally continue the line from the center of the dial to the figure 12. If it happens in Russia, where the afternoon begins 2 hours later than it should be at a reasonable time, conduct a mental line in the direction of figure 2. It happened because long ago it was established daylight savings time when added to an astronomical hour. In addition, after the termination of the transfer time is left of summer, which added another hour.
4
The angle between the hour hand and the direction to the corresponding number, divide in half. This will be the direction South. Knowing your location relative to this part of the lights, define the other.
5
Become South face. Behind you, of course, would be the North. On the left is West and right is East. So side lights are located on a standard printed map.
6
Put a map of the area so defined by the clock direction to the South coincided with the appropriate direction on the map. Find the next point on your route. It must be as noticeable, and route to it route. On rough terrain they rarely get to from one point to another could be reached in a straight line. You will have to bypass some obstacles. That's why you need to control your position on every reference point.
7
Directions you can determine without mechanical watches. They are used only as a device for determining time. At noon on astronomical time, stand with your back to the sun. Your shadow will show you the North direction in the Northern hemisphere. In the South it's the opposite.
Note
Note that the Meridian line that divides the angle between the hour hand and the direction to 12 o'clock in half, may be on either side of 12 o'clock depending on the time of day.
The position of the cardinal points of the sun can be determined another time. At 6 a.m. on astronomical time, it is in the East, 9 in the South — East, 12 South, 15 in the South-West, and 18 in the West. The method of orientation by sun and hours are fairly accurate, but possibly combine it with others. If there are trees nearby, pay attention to which side they are covered with moss. This is the North side. The same resin from coniferous trees in hot weather more liberally on the South side. The South side is often an anthill.

# Advice 3 : How to determine North by the hour

If you find yourself in an emergency situation where you need to know directions, and no compass to help you come to a regular watch. To determine the North in the hours you both day and night, the only condition is that you need to know exactly the position of the sun or moon, although solid clouds may make it difficult to find.
You will need
• watch.
Instruction
1
The day, from 6 am to 6 PM, use the following method. Position the dial so that the hour hand pointed to the sun.
2
Divide the angle between the hour hand and one on the dial in half. The bisector of the angle will point to the South, and until the hour of the day (13:00) South to the right of the sun, and after an hour left. Accordingly, a beam, extended from the bisector in the opposite direction, point you to the North.
3
Please note that to determine the North this method is possible only approximately because in different regions the summer lives in that country, ahead of the waist in different ways: for 1-2 hours - that is, noon does not occur at exactly the hour of the day, and between 13:00-14:00. In addition, residents of some of the CIS countries living in standard time, which is ahead of the waist on the hour, so the sun is at the Zenith, not before 14:00.
4
Night to determine sides of the world, you need a moon. Pre-try to determine at what time the sun would be in the same direction as the moon at the moment.
5
Mentally divide the disc of the moon (even if not visible to the whole moon) on six horizontal fractions. Determine how many of the parts can be seen at the moment. That is, if you can see only a thin month, concludes that shows one of the six parts, and if the moon is almost full - you can see five of the six shares.
6
View time at the moment (rounded to the nearest number of hours e.g. 3am). If the moon arrives, that is, see the right part of the disk, add the visible number of shares, if decreases (visible to the left of) – subtract the same amount.
7
Mark this number on the dial and proceed similarly as when determining the cardinal points by the sun and the clock. Find the angle between figure 1 and the resulting number and divide it in half, the bisector of the acute angle will point to the South. Accordingly, the opposite side is North.
8
Try to determine the position of the Northand the moon and the clock around, without any calculations. If the moon is in first quarter (the teeth of the sickle, look to the left) – at 19:00 she will be in the South, therefore the North is in the opposite side. At full moon the moon points to the South in the morning. In the last quarter (tines pointing to the right) it will be located in the South at 7 o'clock in the morning. Turn your back to it and right in front of your eyes will be North.

# Advice 4 : How to determine your location relative to the cardinal directions

To determine its location relative to the cardinal directions is very important. This is vital in order to navigate the terrain while Hiking, and in any strange city, it is often useful to imagine what direction is North.

## Compass

The most reliable way to understand the directions to use the compass. If you have one, position the device horizontally, that nothing prevented the arrows to move. Once they calm down, turn the compass so that the North direction coincides with the marking on the compass. The North is N and not S, it's important to remember, as often people confuse the two.

Stay tuned to the vicinity of the compass was not metal objects. Railroad tracks or power line knocked down the readings. If you take a compass on a hike, choose a device that does not have metal elements. For example, a compass is embedded in a metal knife or cover hours as decoration. But any metal makes an inaccuracy in the operation of the compass, so the case for the present device is made of non-metallic materials.

Sometimes, you need to navigate a compass. In this case, can help a smartphone with GPS or a Navigator without a smartphone. In such devices already built-in compass. Thanks to them, you can determine not only directions, but also to understand how to get to the desired place.

## If no compass

When the compass is not at hand, handy clear sky overhead. Night, can navigate by the North star: it always points North, if you turn to face her. To find her, find the Big dipper. Then imagine two extreme stars of "bucket" connects in a straight line. Following the direction of the line, measure out approximately 5 of the distance between the extreme stars of the Big dipper. You hit right to the North star. To determine that this is it, pretty easy is one of the brightest stars in the sky.

In the daytime you can navigate by the sun. At noon, the sun points to the South, in the morning it is in the East and in the evening in the West.

## The light in the forest

In nature you can focus on special features. Note the moss on the trees. It is usually located on the North side, as hiding from the sun. On the South side of the tree, as a rule, more branches, and they are often longer. If you see a stump, you will notice that the annual rings are wider on the South side. Birch always darker in the Northern part.

Ants also build their nests in accordance with the directions. South side of the nest is usually gentle, but in the Northern part often a tree or large stone.
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