Since ancient times, people knew how to navigate by the direction of the shadow. Modern man, accustomed to rely on a variety of devices have largely lost this ability. But any traveler can face the fact that the use of GPS or even a compass is impossible. To help out in extreme situations can the old method of determining the cardinal points of the shade.
You will need
• - a straight stick;
• - a few pegs.
Instruction
1
That the sun rises in the East and sets in the West, you know, even preschoolers. The error is usually not taken into account. The ordinary citizen is not necessary. However, deviations exist, and the farther the traveler is from the equator, the more they. If you are in the Northern hemisphere, at noon the sun will be located not strictly in the Meridian, and inclined a little to the South. In the southern hemisphere it is located just to the North.
2
Imagine the situation that you are thrown from the plane at an unknown point and you need to determine where you hit. First you need to understand in which hemisphere you are in. Find a long straight stick and insert it into the ground. Mark the shadow direction. Best of all, if you find nearby is something that can replace the pegs, but in extreme situations the position of the shadow can be noted and a pebble, putting it back where it ends a shadow.
3
Wait for about quarter of an hour. Shadow over this time, a little time to move. Let's see where it is aimed, and make another mark. Combining mark, do you know where the East or West. The sun moves from East to West, a shadow – on the contrary, so that the second mark will be East of the first. The position of the markers you will be able to determine what hemisphere you're in. If the shadow moves clockwise, you are in the Northern hemisphere, counterclockwise in the southern.
4
Now you need to determine the direction from North to South. To do this, a straight line connecting the marks, slide the perpendicular. Stand so that East was at your right. Then you will see North and back South.
5
The position of the shadow to determine the time. This will require another long stick. Stick it vertically on the intersection of the already drawn lines. Directions you know. The Western direction is 6 o'clock in the morning on astronomical time, Vostok – 6 p.m., South at noon.
The main disadvantage of this method of orientation is that it only works during the day. But it also has the advantage that you don't depend on electronic devices. In addition, the direction of the shadow can be defined at any area of the earth's surface, regardless of terrain.

In the drawing, as in painting and in graphics, it is important to observe the correct placement of light and shadow, because without these elements, the drawing is vivid and realistic. If you want to learn how to draw three-dimensional figures and, especially, to draw from life, you need the skill of drawing the shade: to determine the sharpness and saturation depending on the lighting type.
Instruction
1
The main factor in the formation of the shadow is light. In the daylight the shadows sharper and deeper than on a cloudy day when the light is evenly dispersed in the atmosphere. The quality of light is very important to create the right shade, so if you paint any subject from nature, take care of creating the correct lighting to create a hard and dark shadow, or, on the contrary, soft and fuzzy. Practice to shade with a pencil in graphics technology, using nature as an ordinary egg.
2
On a horizontal sheet of paper, draw an egg shape and define where the light falls, where the most illuminated, and where the darker half of the egg. Also determine the type of lighting to understand what shade it gives is soft or hard. On a sheet of paper put a dot in the place where in reality the egg is light.
3
Take another look at the egg and look at the midtones. Complete the egg shape on the paper easy long simple shading with pencilto give it a base gray color. Short strokes of the pencil give more semitones.
4
Consider the shapes of shadows and highlights on the egg - usually they have a rounded Crescent shape. Apply the outlines of these shapes on the drawing in the places corresponding to the location of the real shadows and highlights.
5
Work through the transitions from shadow to light: slightly Flex the shadow fragments, repeating the spherical shape of the eggs and giving it volume. By varying the degree of pressure on the pencil, you can get darker and lighter shades.
6
In places the bright glare treat the desired location on the drawing with an eraser. Usually from Desk surface the light is reflected, creating in the bottom part of the egg light strip. Mark it with a piece of eraser. Redraw the outline of the shadowthat casts the egg on the table, stroke it and achieve a uniform tone.
7
He coped with painting eggs, move on to more complicated objects in which the forms of light and shadow differ from the previous one. Practice and soon you'll develop drawing skills.

Since ancient times, people knew how to navigate by the direction of the shadow. Modern man, accustomed to rely on a variety of devices have largely lost this ability. But any traveler can face the fact that the use of GPS or even a compass is impossible. To help out in extreme situations can the old method of determining the cardinal points of the shade.
You will need
• - a straight stick;
• - a few pegs.
Instruction
1
That the sun rises in the East and sets in the West, you know, even preschoolers. The error is usually not taken into account. The ordinary citizen is not necessary. However, deviations exist, and the farther the traveler is from the equator, the more they. If you are in the Northern hemisphere, at noon the sun will be located not strictly in the Meridian, and inclined a little to the South. In the southern hemisphere it is located just to the North.
2
Imagine the situation that you are thrown from the plane at an unknown point and you need to determine where you hit. First you need to understand in which hemisphere you are in. Find a long straight stick and insert it into the ground. Mark the shadow direction. Best of all, if you find nearby is something that can replace the pegs, but in extreme situations the position of the shadow can be noted and a pebble, putting it back where it ends a shadow.
3
Wait for about quarter of an hour. Shadow over this time, a little time to move. Let's see where it is aimed, and make another mark. Combining mark, do you know where the East or West. The sun moves from East to West, a shadow – on the contrary, so that the second mark will be East of the first. The position of the markers you will be able to determine what hemisphere you're in. If the shadow moves clockwise, you are in the Northern hemisphere, counterclockwise in the southern.
4
Now you need to determine the direction from North to South. To do this, a straight line connecting the marks, slide the perpendicular. Stand so that East was at your right. Then you will see North and back South.
5
The position of the shadow to determine the time. This will require another long stick. Stick it vertically on the intersection of the already drawn lines. Directions you know. The Western direction is 6 o'clock in the morning on astronomical time, Vostok – 6 p.m., South at noon.