Advice 1: How to determine protein in the urine

Protein in urine (proteinuria) is the excretion of protein in the patient more than 50 mg/day. Proteinuria is the most constant and diagnostically important symptom of diseases of the kidneys and urinaryexcretory tract. Methods of determining protein in the urine can be divided into quantitative, semiquantitative and qualitative.
How to determine protein in the urine
Qualitative methods of protein determination in urine: method Geller, alloy with 20% sulfosalicylic acid solution, test with boiling. semi-Quantitative methods: the use of diagnostic test strips for the determination of protein in urine, the method of the Brandberg-Roberts-stolnikova. Quantitative methods: turbidimetric and colorimetric.
The main causes of protein in the urine: glomerulonephritis, renal amyloidosis, diabetic glomerulosclerosis, interstitial nephritis, pyelonephritis, urinarystone disease, kidney allograft rejection, lysozymuria (leukemia), Fanconi syndrome, intravascular hemolysis (hemoglobinuria) and others. The loss of a small amount of protein in the urine is possible even in a healthy person under the influence of many factors (physical strain, cooling, long-term sun exposure, tension, etc.).
At different times of the day there pronounced fluctuations in the level of proteinuria change in the protein concentration in the urine depending on the urine output, therefore, experts estimate the severity of proteinuria on quantitative urinary protein excretion per day, that is, determine the daily proteinuria. Measurement units - grams/day. If you are unable to collect all urine is recommended to determine the concentration of creatinine and protein in one portion of urine. Normal is the ratio protein/creatinine equal to 0.2 or less. Creatinine and protein measured in grams/liter.
Method of determining protein in the urine is performed in clinical diagnostic laboratories of virtually any medical facility. Knowing the protein concentration in grams per 1 liter and the volume of daily urine, you can determine the urinary protein excretion in grams per day (g/day). For diagnosis you need to re-research that is carried out for two weeks or more after receiving the first result of the analysis.
For research use morning portion of urine, which during the night is accumulated in the urinetion of the bladder of the patient. Before the collection of the analysis is necessarily performed hygienic toilet vulva. For the collection of used sterile, single-use containers for biological samples, which can be purchased at the pharmacy. For analysis going to an average portion of urine (first portion into the toilet, after 2 seconds it is necessary to use a container to collect urine to fill the container to 2/3 of volume, then the urinethe emission to continue into the toilet). The study is carried out in the laboratory within 1 hour after collection of urine. Before the study do not apply medicines, as some of them can affect the result of the biochemical examination of the urine. Transporterowych a urine sample at zero temperature.
Determination of protein in daily urine in a concentration of 0,033 g/liter or more is a pathology. Usually in the morning urine protein concentration of less than 0.002 g/l, and daily urine protein concentration is not more than 50-150 mg of protein.

Advice 2: How does urine with protein

Urine is a product of human metabolism. It is formed when blood filtration in the kidneys, that is why the composition of urine gives a clear description of the condition of the human body.
How does urine with protein
Urine is a complex solution consisting of more than 150 compounds. Some specific substances, for example, acetone, bile acids, protein, glucose may be present in the urine in certain diseases.

To control the health of a person, first and foremost, you must determine the amount of urine. The norm is the formation of 1-1. 8 l of urine per day. When allocating more than 2 liters of urine is a symptom of the disruption to the functioning of the kidneys, diabetes mellitus and several other diseases. If the day is formed less than 0.5 liters of urine, there is a blockage of the ureter or bladder.

The color of urine

Color of urine depends on many factors, so may change from pale yellow to orange. The presence of certain colors can affect some foods, and adopted human medicines.

After medication, the urine can turn and acquire a reddish hue. If the person is actively moving, while he has produce a lot of sweat, urine will be intensely yellow, as in the reception of funds type "Nitroxoline" or "Biomitsin".

If the person has not taken any coloring of food and drugs, but the color of his urine different from usual, you can suspect the presence in the body of any disease. For example, liver disease urine will be dark yellow or greenish color.

The presence of blood in the urine allocated clearly indicates the presence of a stone in the ureter or kidney bleeding, if you experience and pain.

If difficult urination - this may indicate inflammation caused by any infection in the bladder. But dirty and murky urine, evidence of severe kidney disease.

Protein in the urine

In the blood of the human protein is absent or its amount is so small that it is not determined by means of laboratory tests. In case of detection in the urine protein is necessary to conduct repeated tests, as it may be present at the morning the awakening of man, as well as after heavy physical work or load in athletes.

Visually determine whether there is albuminuria or not 100% impossible. We can only guess when the urine has a large amount of whitish flakes.

If albuminuria is detected repeatedly, it indicates the presence of any kidney disease. Inflammatory processes occurring in them, provoke a slight increase of protein. If the urine it is allocated more than 2 grams is a disturbing signal.

Advice 3: How to determine pyelonephritis

Pyelonephritis is an inflammatory disease that affects the renal pelvis, calyx and parenchyma. In most cases, the cause of inflammation is bacterial infection. Full recovery is only possible with timely diagnosis, so if you have symptoms of pyelonephritisand needs careful examination.
How to determine pyelonephritis
Most often, acute pyelonephritis is manifested by pain in the lumbar region, increased body temperature, impaired urination and intoxication syndrome. Often these symptoms are mistakenly attributed to other disease: influenza, cholecystitis, appendicitis, etc. the result is inappropriate care that can improve health, but not able to completely cure the pyelonephritis. Untreated, the disease becomes chronic, in which symptoms are not as pronounced and from time to time not cause much concern. This leads to the development of serious complications, the fight against which is not always successful.
The appearance of the above symptoms give a urine sample. This is necessary even if the doctors have ruled out a kidney infection and started treatment from another disease. The presence in the urine of bacteria and white blood cells indicates diseases of the genitourinary system, which is a pyelonephritis. In case of deviations in the overall analysis of the hand over the urine cultures done. This will help confirm the diagnosis, identify the causative agent and to appoint adequate treatment.
Give blood for General analysis. Increase in ESR and white blood cells with a shift formula to the left may indicate pyelonephritis. In some cases, detected and even anemia.
Pass ultrasound. On pyelonephritis may indicate kidney growth and limiting their mobility. This is especially noticeable with unilateral inflammation.
For the final confirmation of the diagnosis requires review of x-rays. A sign of pyelonephritis is a change in the size of kidneys, the fuzziness and roughness of contours, the presence of shadows of stones, compression of the Cup-pelvis-plating system. Excretory urography completes a survey and allows to detect the violation of the outflow of urine.
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