Advice 1: How to get a PhD

For a person planning to link their professional lives to science or work in high school, it is vital to continue my education after obtaining a College diploma. The degree not only determines the employee's status in the scientific establishment, but also testifies to the recognition of his achievements in a professional environment. The initial step in the system of Russian scientific hierarchy is the degree of the candidate of Sciences.
How to get a PhD
In order to obtain the degree candidate of Sciences, an applicant shall prepare a qualification scientific work in the chosen specialty (dissertation) and defend it in a special certification authority – Dissertation. Then at the request of the Council a degree already awarded by the Higher attestation Commission (HAC). The whole procedure of preparation and defending of doctoral thesis is strictly formalized and must follow a particular algorithm.
Before you start writing the thesis research the applicant must determine the form of its activities. Currently, there are several ways to obtain the degree of candidate of Sciences: postgraduate (full-time and part-time), competition and self-training.
Postgraduate study is a continuation of the educational process after receiving a high school diploma. For admission to graduate school both full-time and part-time, applicant must apply to the University Department of postgraduate studies and to pass the entrance examination in the selected specialty, philosophy and foreign language. Training in internal postgraduate study lasts 3 years, correspondence-5 years. During this period, the graduate student attends classes in a foreign language and philosophy to prepare for the candidate exams, the so-called candidate minimum, and seminars in the major field.
At the same time a young professional needs under the guidance of the supervisor to choose a dissertation research topic and begin to work on it. Finished the manuscript of the thesis the graduate student must submit to the Department by the end of graduate studies. This form of training is most suitable for young graduates who do not yet have significant professional experience and need guidance and assistance from senior colleagues.
Competition is a more free form of preparation for the degree. It does not involve a permanent presence at the University or school. The applicant profile is attached to the Department in their specialty. The academic Council of the University approves the chosen topic of the thesis and the research supervisor. The applicant is responsible for preparation for delivery of candidate examinations and the writing of the dissertation. Competition does not imply severe restrictions on the time of writing, the dates of exams and providing dissertation research chosen by the applicant.
Regardless of the chosen form of training (or postgraduate studies), a candidate for the degree of PhD shall, prior to defending his thesis to publish in scientific journals a number of articles on the subject of interest or one monograph. Moreover, taken into account only those articles that are published in the list of editions approved by HAC. A list of scientific works joins the set of documents required for the consideration of the dissertation by the Dissertation Board.

Advice 2: Giving the candidates at least

Candidate minimum – a list of exams taken by graduate students or applicants of a scientific degree of candidate of Sciences. It is an important part of the evaluation of the teaching staff.
Giving the candidates at least


The goal for the candidate degree (master's exam) — to determine the depth of professional knowledge of the applicant's degree, as well as to determine the level of readiness for independent scientific research work. For the award of a scientific degree of candidate of Sciences candidate examinations (philosophy, foreign language and special discipline) is required.

Order delivery

Candidate examinations on philosophy and foreign language are held at the model education programs developed and approved by the Ministry of education. The exam on special discipline for program consisting of two parts: a typical minimum program for speciality developed the leading in the industry of higher educational establishments and scientific institutions; an additional program of the program – is developed by the relevant Department of the particular University.

In practice, candidate examinations are accepted twice a year in the form of sessions, timing and duration of which are set directly by the higher education institution, conducting the candidate exams. At the discretion of the Commission for PhD examinations shall be by ticket or without them, and the knowledge of future scientists and teachers are evaluated by the school system: "excellent", "good", "satisfactory", "unsatisfactory". The exam will be given one attempt to re-take the exam in a single session is impossible.


The successful candidate examinations is an important stage in the career of a specialist. In front of the examinee, it opens the possibility of obtaining the certificate which grants the right to defend his thesis. The deadlines for the candidate degree and certificate validity is unlimited.

In accordance with the regulations on training scientific-pedagogical and scientific shots in system of postgraduate professional education in the Russian Federation, candidate examinations are compulsory for the award of a scientific degree of candidate of Sciences and candidates for a degree of doctor of science, having a scientific degree of candidate of Sciences.

Students who have passed in full or in part candidate examinations, admission to graduate school are exempt from the relevant exams. The decision on admission to graduate school or denial of admission reported coming within a week.

Advice 3: How to get a grant for small business development

Start your own business is quite difficult. Because this requires a solid financial investment. And take them often just anywhere. So many beginning young, but promising businessmen are trying to get a grant from the state to develop their business.
How to get a grant for small business development
You will need
  • -business project;
  • -basic documents on the activities of your company
To obtain a grant for the development of business, you need to start to find the announcement of the beginning of the contest. This can be done in specialized publications and on the Internet. For example, on the websites: and Here you can read the conditions for participation in the competition and the value of the prize. Send your application and begin to prepare for the competition.
After registering as a participant, begin to develop your business project. Treat it with special attention and care. This is what you will present, and what you expect to get the money. Remember priority to projects that are financially and economically justified, represents a technical or scientific novelty, and the prospect of market development or production. Turn in your detailed business plan the documents that will help you to prove the feasibility of your business and its usefulness to society. Learn the rules of their work - for this or that competition.
All of your prepared draft is transmitted to a professional and qualified Commission. It is composed of 2 000 experts, the majority of which (about 2/3) have a scientific degree (candidate or doctor of Sciences). Want to help yourself win the grant? Make mini-presentations. Your task is to support your project. And you should do everything you can to get noticed.
To receive a grant, you can only if you have not received a monetary benefit to the development of their business. Also, the grant will not let you, if you are not legally the founder and owner of provided business.
The money is allocated is not always immediately. In some cases, even partial replacement of the natural equivalent. If you need office equipment, you can just give her away, and already the remaining part to give money.
Useful advice
In preparing the application for participation in the grant correctly. After all, in terms of the competition for inaccuracies you may be refused registration.

Advice 4: How to get a degree

In Russia there are two scientific degrees: candidate of Sciences and doctor of Sciences. In between may lie the time period of 5-25 years. But in order to become a candidate, you need to determine the route by which an intelligent soldier will receive the first "star" officer mental labor.
How to get a degree
Choose a topic and supervisor. The relevance and novelty of the work are the basic criteria of the thesis. However, the level of many scientific studies is poor, and noted in the annual reports of HAC - Higher attestation Commission. In order to navigate the work of colleagues, you should consult the Electronic library of dissertations - Residents of the regions will be particularly useful section of "Virtual reading rooms". Those libraries that have database access electronic databases.
There are four tactics degree. To become a PhD, you can choose to study at postgraduate or part-time. This is the way to recent students or University staff. In any case, this format requires a constant assistance of the supervisor, classes in philosophy and foreign language (so-called candidate minimum). There are such forms as competition and self-training. The applicant may appear at the University raids. Self-study is more of a rarity than the rule. This option should be borne in mind, but to be guided preferably on the first three. Fellowship involves entrance exams, and competition - going through some bureaucratic procedures. And postgraduate training, and competition may apply. The amount depends on higher education.
The following years involve practical and theoretical work, writing scientific articles and publishing them in journals WAC (this is the list of scientific journals approved by Higher attestation Commission). Graduate pass candidate minimum of philosophy, foreign language and specialty. But most important is the thesis. After it was written (and this is scientific work from 100 to 350 printed pages), you need to squeeze out of it the abstract of the report, which will be heard by the dissertation Council on defense.
Candidate minimums when delivered, the package of articles is ready, the practical part of the research conducted and the thesis with a written thesis, graduate student, or applicant, is to launch protect. Need to find the thesis Committee (usually the scientific Director is well-versed in this issue). For doctors, there are special dissertation councils (doctoral councils), which are authorized to write application to the VAK with the request to award the PhD doctoral degree.
Graduate students ochniki and time students each year write reports on the work done. For resident students, the thesis must be ready in three years. For external students - four. The competition involves a deadline of ten years.

Advice 5: How to obtain a certificate in professional accountant

Certificate of professional accountant in our country is not a mandatory document for every specialist in this field. However, employers increasingly prefer accountantm, past accreditation, and some reputable organizations applicants for the position of chief accountant without a certificateand not considered.
How to obtain a certificate in professional accountant
To qualify for the certificate of a professional accountant , you can, if you have:
- higher education or the diploma of candidate (doctor) of Sciences in the specialty "Accounting, statistics";
- experience from three years as a chief accountant, lecturer in accounting, head/Deputy head of the financial Department or in other leadership positions, which requires knowledge of accounting;
- the successful result of passing the course Training and certification of professional accountants" (240 academic hours).
Training course "Training and certification of professional accountants" you may at the Institute of professional accountants of Russia (IPBR) or in one of the accredited training centres. Training is conducted in several directions: chief accountant, financial Manager, accountant, financial expert consultant. All programs have a volume of 240 academic hours.
Upon completion of training you will be issued with a certificate testifying the receipt of additional education. To obtain the certificate is not enough – you need to pass the exam successfully.
The exam is conducted in two stages. The first stage is the examination in oral and written form. According to the results, the applicant is allowed or not allowed to the second stage. Most important, the second stage, carried out jointly with IPP, where the decision on the issuance of a certificate of a professional accountant.
Received a certificate of a professional accountant is valid for five years. After this period, the certificate will need to be extended. To do this you have to become a member of IPP, pay fees and be subject to annual training program (at least 40 hours per year).
Is the advice useful?