Instruction

1

To properly calculate

*a penalty*for**late****payment**on the credit, see the content of the concluded agreement with the Bank. In terms of lending often stated that failure to comply with the payer of the payment terms the Bank sets the penalty in the form of fines that accrued until full repayment. Suppose that the penalty established by the credit agreement equal to 1% per every day of delay.2

To calculate

*a penalty*for**late****payment**on the loan, multiply the amount of the overdue payment part**payment**by the specified percentage. For example, the value of the monthly**payment**is 1000 rubles. At the same time paid was 400 RUB 600 RUB came in**late**. First day of late payment, this amount will increase it to 6 rubles. Thus, at the end of the first after a late day will need to pay already 606 RUB.3

Starting from the second and next days, penalty will be charged on a constantly increasing amount. So, on the second day the penalty will be calculated at the rate of 1% 606 RUB and will be equal to the Debt of 6.06 RUB on the end of the second day will be 612,06 RUB And so on.

4

Therefore, to accurately calculate

*penalty*for**late****payment**on the loan on a specific day and pay for it in a way to exclude remains unaccounted debt, you will need to calculate percentages for all the past days. In the case if you will not make payment of the full amount of the debt, then the remainder is again charged penalties, to detect which during repayment following**the payment**, would not be very nice.# Advice 2: How to calculate the delay

Reason for late making a regular loan payment can be anything: delayed salary, urgent unexpected expenses, sickness or disease and a host of other reasons. Because life is unpredictable, and fortunately short-lived late payment will not affect credit history. But treaties provide for penalties for the late payment, the amount of which should be able to calculate, in order not to be Bank into perpetual debtors.

You will need

- calculator
- pencil
- - a sheet of paper

Instruction

1

In order to calculate the delay, use simple math. Let's say that every month we pay on the loan is 5 000 rubles. However, we understand that in the current month to pay the loan on time can not.

Read the credit agreement. Suppose it is specified that the penalty is 0.5% for each day of delay. Thus, the next day after the payment deadline we will still owe the Bank (5000 × 0.5%) was 25 rubles. That is, for repayment of arrears we have to pay for 5025 rubles.

Read the credit agreement. Suppose it is specified that the penalty is 0.5% for each day of delay. Thus, the next day after the payment deadline we will still owe the Bank (5000 × 0.5%) was 25 rubles. That is, for repayment of arrears we have to pay for 5025 rubles.

2

Suppose we know that paying late will be 5 days after the payment date. To calculate delay in this case.

Debt after 1 day of delay is 5025 rubles. Following the 0.5% interest will be charged on this amount.

Thus, debt at the end of 2 days of delay will be (5025 × 0,5% + 5025) 5050,13 rubles.

Debt after 1 day of delay is 5025 rubles. Following the 0.5% interest will be charged on this amount.

Thus, debt at the end of 2 days of delay will be (5025 × 0,5% + 5025) 5050,13 rubles.

3

Similarly, to calculate the delay should be for the rest of the day.

At the end of 3 days (5050,13 × 0,5% + 5050,13) - 5075,38 rubles.

At the end of 4 days (5075,38 × 0,5% + 5075,38) - 5100,76 rubles.

At the end of 5 days (5100,76 × 0,5% + 5100,76) - 5126,26 rubles.

Even if we pay the loan on the morning of 5 day, to calculate the delay should be for 5 whole days, as the funds are debited from the accounts happens 1 time a day, usually late in the evening.

Now you will be able to correctly calculate the delay and repay the debt with accuracy to the penny.

At the end of 3 days (5050,13 × 0,5% + 5050,13) - 5075,38 rubles.

At the end of 4 days (5075,38 × 0,5% + 5075,38) - 5100,76 rubles.

At the end of 5 days (5100,76 × 0,5% + 5100,76) - 5126,26 rubles.

Even if we pay the loan on the morning of 5 day, to calculate the delay should be for 5 whole days, as the funds are debited from the accounts happens 1 time a day, usually late in the evening.

Now you will be able to correctly calculate the delay and repay the debt with accuracy to the penny.

Useful advice

One of the conditions of the credit agreement is charged by the Bank penalties for late payment of the next loan payment. You can often see such wording: "For late payment of the next payment, the Bank charges interest at the rate of 0.5% of the overdue indebtedness for each day of delay". Thus, 1 day after the due date the client will be forced with the payment to pay the assessed penalty.

# Advice 3: How to calculate the penalty under the contract

Due to various reasons in the business of life often have overdue payments. Most of them are extinguished in working order and do not attract special attention of accountants. However, there are situations when the counterparty regularly allow for such delays. In this case the contracts prescribes the penalty as a way to compensate the aggrieved party for late return and use her money.

Instruction

1

If signed by the parties to the document clearly stated the penaltyto calculate

**the penalty**according to**the contract**, is not difficult. In this case it is calculated on the basis of specified conditions, which include its value and the accrual periods. While its size often specified in percent and the accrual period is allowed each day of delay. Thus, all considered to be simply a conventional calculator, based on the amount of debt incurred.2

However, there are cases when the possibility of accrual of penalties spelled out in the contract, but its size is either not specified or refers to the refinancing rate of the CBR. In this case, to calculate

**the penalty**on**the contract**will be in the following order. Find out the current refinancing rate of the Central Bank. To clarify, its size is easiest on the official website of the Central Bank.3

Ensure that it is in the daily rate. Since the penalty is often awarded for each day of delay, you'll need to know what the percentage should be daily to increase the amount of the debt.

4

Calculate the number of days of delay incurred. Days of delay are considered from the day following the last valid day of payment specified in the contract. Furthermore, they can include weekend and public holidays.

5

After calculating all the values to calculate

**the penalty**according to**the contract**, multiply the resulting daily rate of refinancing by the number of days of delay and the total amount of debt. The obtained value will be the penalty**contract**on a specific date of calculation.# Advice 4: How to calculate the balance on the loan

Very often, taking out a loan to three or more years, the borrower tries to repay the loan ahead of schedule. After making a certain amount of funds from such customer of the Bank, a natural question arises: "How to calculate

**the balance of the**debt on**the loan**?" There are several options that will help to know the approximate**balance**on**the loan**.You will need

- Calculator, contract of loan, payment schedule

Instruction

1

Calculate the amount of the principal debt, i.e. money borrowed.Even in the case of early repayment of the principal debt is paid in full. As a rule, the amount of the basic needs prescribed in the payment schedule in a separate column. For example, the borrower took out a loan in the amount of 100 thousand rubles for one year. 6 months, he paid regularly, and on the seventh decided to pay off the loan early. The principal amount will be 50 thousand rubles.

2

Calculate accrued on the loan interest.The interest is often prescribed in the payment schedule in a separate column. In many banks the payments on

**the loan**are annuitants. In this case, the amount of interest for each month will be the same. Therefore, to calculate the interest amount for early repayment is not difficult. If the interest differential, then the payments each month is different, because the amount of interest decreases with each passing day. But if this figure is spelled out in a separate column, calculate the debt this part is also easy.3

Calculate all fees. This is the most complicated and laborious process. It is important to consider everything provided by the loan agreement compulsory payments. As a rule, many banks Commission is not subject to recalculation in case of early repayment and must be paid by the borrower along with the loan balance.

4

Calculate the debt on

**the loan**by adding all the above parameters.Summarizing all the above parameters, it is possible to know the approximate amount of the debt. However, it is better to call the Bank to contact employees of the credit institution through the official website or visit the office of the Bank to ascertain the balance outstanding on**the loan**. In case if there is considerable disagreement in the counting of the remaining debt, the borrower can always ask an employee of the credit institution to explain away such numbers.Useful advice

Bank staff are advised in any case not to be calculated on a standalone basis. If the borrower is suddenly not properly deem the interest does not take into account commissions or other mandatory payments, it might be a delay, which will lead to the imposition of fines.

# Advice 5: How to calculate the penalty of the refinancing rate of

It often happens that the credit agreement provides for a certain percentage or a fixed amount for failure to perform obligations to the Bank. If such parameters are not in the contract,

**forfeit**the Bank has, based on the current**rate***of refinancing*, which is calculated on the basis of a number of indicators.You will need

- calendar
- calculator
- Notepad and pen

Instruction

1

Calculate the amount of the debt.Otherwise, this parameter is defined as the sum of cash required to be paid or refund. This amount may be a debt under the credit agreement or any document involving a settlement between two private persons or legal entities. The amount of debt is denoted as S.

2

Determine the number of days of delay.The delay starts from the day when the payment is not received by the Bank. For example, the deadline for the payment 10th. If to 23:59 hours this money is not received, the 11-th Bank is entitled to charge

**a penalty**. This parameter is denoted as K.3

Specify the value of the

**rate***of refinancing*.Taken the rate*of refinancing*on a specific number. If during the period of nonpayment of debt, the Central Bank changed the rate*of refinancing*, there are the penalty separately for each specific period. Rate*refinancing*is denoted by the symbol R.4

Determine the number of days in a year.In this setting, it should be clarified that for the calculation of the penalty from the

**rate***of refinancing*is taken to be 360 days, not 365 as is usually taken into account when calculating the number of coefficients. The reason is simple, 360 days is set by the Resolution of Plenum of the Supreme and Supreme Arbitration Courts of the Russian Federation from October 8, 1998 under serial number 13/14 "Practice of application of the provisions of the civil code about the commissions and percent for using other people's money" number of days to calculate the penalty.5

Calculate

**the penalty**from the**rate***of refinancing*.The penalty from the**rate***of refinancing*(debt) is calculated by the formula:(S*K*R) / 360Стоит to note that the penalty constitutes a wrongful retention of other people's money, non-payment of the debt or its amount, as well as nonpayment of the obligations of the contract, if its term has expired, and the period of payment have not been previously provided.Note

The penalty is intended to be significantly different from fines, interest on arrears and penalties. Therefore, before to proceed to the calculation of penalties from the refinancing rate, it is important to determine the cause of the accrual of such penalties.

# Advice 6: How to calculate interest for VAT

The principle of calculation of penalties for any tax is the same: they depend on the overdue amount, charged for every day, since after the deadline for the payment of tax ending last before the immediate repayment of arrears and is equal to 1/300 of the refinancing rate. The easiest way to use to calculate the online calculator. But you can do it on their own.

You will need

- - the amount of tax payable;
- - the period of delay;
- - the refinancing rate over time, while the delay lasts.

Instruction

1

The amount of tax payments you can calculate it yourself or check with the tax office. But it is better to pay arrears and

For independent calculation determine the taxable base (the entire amount of the transaction or part of it depending on the situation), divide this figure by 100 and multiply the result by the rate

**fines**, voluntarily, while you do not require this tax. Otherwise you'll have to pay a fine.For independent calculation determine the taxable base (the entire amount of the transaction or part of it depending on the situation), divide this figure by 100 and multiply the result by the rate

**of VAT**to your case.2

The countdown of the period of delay starts from the calendar day following the deadline for payment of tax. The end is determined by the date on which you plan to repay the debt. Directly behind the redemption date, penalty interest is not charged already. But for the preceding will have to pay. The payment date shall be the date of depositing cash in the Bank or debiting them from your account on the basis of the payment order with a Bank transfer.

Charges will be applied for each day for the duration of the delay, including weekends and public holidays.

Charges will be applied for each day for the duration of the delay, including weekends and public holidays.

3

To calculate

The result is the amount of fines in rubles and kopecks.

**fines**online you can, for example, using the calculator on the website of the magazine "chief accountant". To do this, enter in the appropriate fields amount of unpaid tax, the date of commencement of the delay and expected date of debt repayment, and then give the command to calculate.The result is the amount of fines in rubles and kopecks.

4

With self-counting is easiest if the refinancing rate in the entire period of delay has not changed. If changed, will have to calculate

To clarify the refinancing rate in different periods on the website of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation.

**interest**separately for all the days of validity of the different values of rate.To clarify the refinancing rate in different periods on the website of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation.

5

To calculate the amount of penalties, multiply the unpaid tax on the number of days of delay, this amount divide by 100, and the result is the value of the refinancing rate, and then divide the resulting number by 300.

And so for each period the different values of the rate of refinancing, if it has changed. Then put all the results and get the amount of fines to be paid.

And so for each period the different values of the rate of refinancing, if it has changed. Then put all the results and get the amount of fines to be paid.

# Advice 7: How to calculate loan interest

To calculate the interest on the loan - the problem is simple only at first glance. For this it is necessary to know the system of calculation and terms of crediting of the Bank.

You will need

- calculator;
- - credit agreement or a description of the loan program.

Instruction

1

The interest on the loan can be calculated in two ways: according to the actual number of days credit or at the rate of 30 days per month. Most often used the first method.

2

Must be taken from the loan agreement or ask the credit Manager interest rate, loan term, and amount of credit.

3

Further, the credit must be multiplied by interest rate divided by 100 and the number of days in the year (365 days in non-leap year) and multiplied by the number of days in the month and the term of the loan. For example, the rate on the loan is 12% per annum, the amount of 300 thousand and a term of 3 years, it turns out that the amount of interest for the first month will be 300 000 *(12/100)/(3*365)*30 (the number of days in month) = 986.3 R.

When monthly repayment of the loan the interest amount is recalculated based on the actual debt, and a large part of payments on percent for the first months.

When monthly repayment of the loan the interest amount is recalculated based on the actual debt, and a large part of payments on percent for the first months.

4

In rare cases, the loan is repaid in a single payment. Then the interest and the principal amount shall be paid in a lump sum at the end of the period, and calculate them more easily. Multiply the interest rate by the loan amount and loan term. For example, the credit on 100 thousand rubles for one year at 15% annual interest on the loan will be = 100000*15/100= 15 000 RUB.

5

It remains to add additional fees and loan payments. For example, the monthly fee for account maintenance, credit review, insurance payments, which should add to the interest rate.

Note

The lowest rate of interest does not always guarantee the smallest overpayment. Therefore it is necessary attention to the hidden fees and commissions and at the conclusion of the contract to convert the interest.

Useful advice

At all sites, large banks can find a loan calculator which allows to calculate monthly loan payments depending on the amount and term of the loan. In most cases, they are divided into the payment percentage and the amount of, repayment of the principal debt. However, due to the fact that most of the banks approve the interest rate for each customer individually, this calculation can have a certain margin of error.

# Advice 8: How to calculate penalty

The result of the late payment may need to calculate penalties. The penalty can be stipulated in legislation or determined by agreement of the parties. Nonobservance of the written form of the agreement on liquidated damages is invalid. In determining the amount of penalties in the agreement need to observe the principle of reasonableness.

Instruction

1

Calculate the amount of the debt. The principal amount is confirmed by primary accounting documents: invoice, acts of acceptance, acts of reconciliation of mutual settlements. Debt is calculated after the deadline for performance of an obligation.

2

Define the period of delay in payment. One of the most contentious issues that arise in court. As a rule, the obligor proves that the delay arose as a result of guilty actions of the creditor, disputing the start date of the late payments. Therefore, before filing a suit, the date of occurrence of delay it is possible to get a written confirmation of a debtor.

3

Make the calculation of penalties per day of delay. For this amount, debt rate, multiply by penalties. As a rule, fines for delay shall be recovered in the amount of the refinancing rate. The rate is set by instructions of the Central Bank of Russia. When calculating on the basis of the annual refinancing rate, in the numerator indicate the discount rate, the denominator is 360. For example, 28.02.2011, the rate on the day 8/360.

4

Finally, the interest amount equal to: the amount one day of delay multiplied by the number of days.

Note

The court in its discretion may reduce the amount of interest in the disparity of the basic obligation and consequences of execution.

Useful advice

A letter to the defendant with the debt repayment schedule will simplify the procedure for collecting penalties.

# Advice 9: As penalties under the contract

Alas, not all contractors timely perform its obligations. In the case of late payment, the company which is owed, is entitled to impose on the total amount of outstanding obligations the penalty, which calculates at the rate of refinancing or in accordance with the current contract.

You will need

- the total amount of the debt;
- - the number of overdue days;
- - refinancing rate of interest.

Instruction

1

Usually, the penalty is payable by a partner calculated as a percentage of the debt amount for each day of delay (article 330).

2

The formula for interest calculations is to determine the amount of debt multiplied by the interest rate percentage and the number of days of delay.

3

To determine a penalty, the accountant needs to determine the amount of the debt to include the value added tax. Then define the start and end dates of delay. The start date is the day following the day when according to the agreement should have been paid for your goods or services. The end of the period is the actual execution of obligations for payment (payment of debt).

4

The rate of interest is determined by the signed contract. For example, if the contract States 0.1% of the total amount for each day of stitching or 30 rubles are governed by this agreement. In the absence of such paragraph, the accrual of interest is carried out according to the refinancing rate, according to the norms of the civil code.

5

In the calculation of the rate of refinancing keep in mind that it is an annual, so when calculating penalties for one day in the denominator make a note of 360 days. Then a penalty for one day and multiply by the total number of overdue days.

6

If the delay concerns non-monetary obligations (delay in construction, etc.), the penalty is imposed only if it is contractual and is imposed on the total price of the contract. In the presence of delay on multiple contracts the calculation is made for each of them, added up and is the total amount of interest charges.

7

After calculating the interest claim on outstanding obligations are sent to the partner by registered letter with notification, and if he never responds, the enterprise may apply to the court for bringing an unfair partner to liability and viterbovia his debt.

# Advice 10: How to calculate interest on insurance premiums

For the calculation of fines for

**insurance****contributions**will need to source data such as date of occurrence and the planned repayment of debt, arrears and the refinancing rate in the period from the deadline for payment of the premium until the day when he was actually listed in one or another extra-budgetary Fund.You will need

- - the date of the debt and its planned repayment;
- - arrears;
- - the refinancing rate in the period until the last delay.

Instruction

1

Unlike taxes, in which case

*interest*is charged from the day following the late payment including the down payment, the late payment of premiums begins on the expiry of the deadline of their payment for the year. This date is the 31 December. And if you do not fit into this framework,*interest*you should be charged from January 1 next year. If the Pension Fund of the Russian Federation has counted you*interest*on advance payments and you have paid responsibly, the Fund should get the money back or take to offset your future payments.2

The rest of the solver is the same as with taxes. You must determine the date when you plan to repay the arrears. While

*fines*are charged for all calendar days from the date of occurrence of delay, including weekends and holidays, from 1 January to the last day before the transfer of payment, inclusive. For the day of payment penalties is not considered.3

The compulsory component of the calculation serves as the refinancing rate in force at the time, yet lasted your overdue

**contributions**. If it has changed, will have to break up the time periods of each rate value and calculate the sum of penalties for each separately, and then add up the results. Refinancing rates for different periods can be found on the website of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation.4

In the presence of all required performance penalty is calculated by the following formula: Interest = Arrears on

**contributions*** Number of days overdue * refinancing Rate / 100 * 1/300.5

There are also more simple variant - to use the online calculator penalties on the website of the journal "the accountant" (

*http://www.glavbukh.ru/pencalc/*). Enter in the corresponding field the date of the insured debt and the expected repayment, the arrears amount and click "Calculate".