Instruction

1

Clearly specify the problem statement. We need to find 7% of the number 594.

2

The digits on the calculator number, which is necessary to calculate the interest. In our case, the dialed 594.

3

Click the "X" button. Is - the button for multiplication. Do not confuse it with the " + " button (add).

4

Enter the percent. In our case, type the number 7.

5

Click the "%". This is the letter of interest. More than anything don't type it, no characters "=" (equals). The calculator immediately shows the calculated value. In this case, the figure turned 41,79. Thus, 7% of the number 594 = 41,79.

6

Click "S". This is the reset button, it is highlighted in a different color. The calculator will display zero and you can do the following calculation.

Note

Do not use calculator which works intermittently. Calculator - working tool, the correctness of the testimony which much may depend. Purchase once a good device that will last you for years to come. Reliable calculators are produced by well-known companies producing electronic equipment.

Useful advice

Sometimes check calculate a normal column, not to forget how to count. After all, at hand may not have a calculator. You don't have to get into an awkward situation. Remember that simple calculators built into cell phones.

# Advice 2: How to calculate profit

As strange as it may sound, but in order to calculate

**profit**, one must first count all the expenses. Because the profits may not at all be on the results of a full cycle of the business. However, even if there is no profit, that's not a reason to despair and stop working. As they say, many entrepreneurs, at first you feed the business, and the business begins to feed you.Instruction

1

To calculate

**profit**in the future to be able to implement the correct financial and managerial decisions, primarily at the outset it is necessary to organize a complete financial accounting. It should reflect all the amounts that you invest in a business (personal or credit funds), proceeds with shipment (if they do not match), as well as all costs that you carry out, article by article (procurement of goods, rental of retail space, shipping, utilities, etc.).2

After a certain period, e.g. one month, keep all the calculations in one table. The first line will allocate the proceeds received for the month, in the following lines specify all the made expenses. If we sum up the total cost, you will be able to find the difference between revenues and costs and, thus, to calculate

**the profit**. However, in this report note that in business practice there are often moments of discrepancy at the time of occurrence of certain liabilities and payment for them. Let's say you took the production, or has shipped the goods, and get paid for it later. In addition, a similar situation may be and to other counterparties, for example, advance payments for rent or electricity. All these points should be taken into consideration to make such a shipment report, that is the time when the obligation arose, not when they were paid to have them in front of the net financial picture of the month.3

You can also calculate

**profit**as a percentage of revenue. This index is called the margin, and analysis of its changes over time helps to make better management decisions. To determine the ROI, divide the amount of your income per month on the amount of the proceeds, and then multiply the result by 100%. For different types of activity characterized by its level of profitability, but on this indicator it is possible to compare your business with other similar.# Advice 3: How to calculate penalty

The result of the late payment may need to calculate penalties. The penalty can be stipulated in legislation or determined by agreement of the parties. Nonobservance of the written form of the agreement on liquidated damages is invalid. In determining the amount of penalties in the agreement need to observe the principle of reasonableness.

Instruction

1

Calculate the amount of the debt. The principal amount is confirmed by primary accounting documents: invoice, acts of acceptance, acts of reconciliation of mutual settlements. Debt is calculated after the deadline for performance of an obligation.

2

Define the period of delay in payment. One of the most contentious issues that arise in court. As a rule, the obligor proves that the delay arose as a result of guilty actions of the creditor, disputing the start date of the late payments. Therefore, before filing a suit, the date of occurrence of delay it is possible to get a written confirmation of a debtor.

3

Make the calculation of penalties per day of delay. For this amount, debt rate, multiply by penalties. As a rule, fines for delay shall be recovered in the amount of the refinancing rate. The rate is set by instructions of the Central Bank of Russia. When calculating on the basis of the annual refinancing rate, in the numerator indicate the discount rate, the denominator is 360. For example, 28.02.2011, the rate on the day 8/360.

4

Finally, the interest amount equal to: the amount one day of delay multiplied by the number of days.

Note

The court in its discretion may reduce the amount of interest in the disparity of the basic obligation and consequences of execution.

Useful advice

A letter to the defendant with the debt repayment schedule will simplify the procedure for collecting penalties.

# Advice 4: How to calculate the interest for the loan

**Loans**firmly established in the life of each person. They give all the banks and under different

**interest**. It would seem, what could be easier than to calculate

**the interest**on the loan. But when one interest rate for the same amount of credit – you can pay different amount. The amount of the payment depends on what you will be issued a payment – annuity or differentiated.

Instruction

1

Choosing a loan and the Bank to get it, are you targeting the interest rate on the loan. If one Bank offers a rate of 10% and the other 11%, you of course select the Bank which offers lower interest rate. But even if you took out a loan at the same low percentage, the payout amount can vary.

2

Annuity or equal payments made monthly – payments will be the same throughout the crediting period. When differentiated payments - payments on the outstanding debt, the initial payout amount will be higher than in the first case. In the subsequent payout amount decreases every month and the amount paid for the entire loan will be less. So taking a loan at one interest rate, for the same number of years, the amount of payments is different, as the end result.

3

At differentiated payments the balance of debt is reduced, and therefore reduced interest payments. Accordingly, the full amount of the payments will be lower.

4

In annuity payments, the borrower does not care about percentages and the share which goes to repay the loan. The Bank itself shares paid the amount of the loan on part repayment and interest. Therefore, in the first years of repayment, the proportion of funds that go to

**the cent**higher. At the end of payments most of the money goes to repay the principal amount of the loan. The Bank takes its profit forward. If you decide to repay the loan,**the interest**taken by the Bank ahead you no return.5

Therefore, when different types of loan repayment total expenditures for the same percent different. That is, is this math, when 2+2 not always equals 4.

Note

In the market of banking services, you can find a lot of offers for loans and making your choice in favor of one or another Bank, you might want to learn how to calculate the interest on the loan. It is no secret that if the Bank offers a loan at 5 percent, you will have to pay more than at another Bank, and under 12 percent, and just, in the first case, the calculation is always performed on the original loan amount, and the second for the rest.

Useful advice

They differ from each other interest rate on the loan, period of loan, purpose of loan, as well as a number of additional conditions. How is the amount of interest on the loan? You can calculate this percentage using fast but accurate methods of calculating %, which can be used even without a calculator. The 1st method. The fastest and most inaccurate (loan Amount * number of years on the loan) * (% of the loan / 2) + 1 to 8 % of the amount received.

# Advice 5: How to calculate overpayment on loans

Loans have become an integral part of modern life. A lot of the credit organizations offer their services by advertising favorable conditions. But the best loan is one in which the small overpayment. When choosing loan programs for yourself, you can calculate this

**overpayment**.You will need

- Loan terms - loan amount, interest rate, period. Microsoft Excel.

Instruction

1

The amount of the overpayment on the loan is the sum of actually paid interest-bearing liabilities. In order to calculate the amount of the overpayment, you need to add up all the amounts the payment of interest for the entire period of the loan.

2

The monthly payment on the basic debt is calculated as follows. The full amount of the loan divided by the loan term in number of months.

3

Open the page in Microsoft Excel and create a table with the actual data of the specific loan. To do this the table header:

1 count) № p/p (number of months),

2 count) the number of days in the month

3 graph) the amount of the loan

4 graph), the repayment of the principal debt for the period

Count 5) payment of percent for the period

6 count) loan payment (sum of 3 and 4 count).

1 count) № p/p (number of months),

2 count) the number of days in the month

3 graph) the amount of the loan

4 graph), the repayment of the principal debt for the period

Count 5) payment of percent for the period

6 count) loan payment (sum of 3 and 4 count).

4

The first line of the "loan amount" indicate the full amount. The second line - put the cursor on the table cell and write the formula: = sum from the first row - the payment of principal in the previous month. This formula copy this column to the end of the table. Thus, each subsequent principal amount will be reduced by the amount of principal repayment on the loan in the previous month.

5

In the first row of graphs of interest on the loan put the cursor on the table cell and write the formula: = principal amount (the current row) * % rate of shares / 365 * a cell that represents the number of days in the month in the same table. So it turns out the amount of accrued interest for the current month. This formula also need to copy to the end of the table.

6

The first line of the graphs showing the loan payment put the cursor on the table cell and write the formula: = total monthly payment of principal + interest amount that is specified in the same table row (current pay period).

7

At the end of the table under the graph, paying the monthly payment of principal, interest and loan payment put the sign of the sum of all cells in the corresponding column. So in the graph of the monthly payment of principal total amount should equal the amount of the loan. In the column percent of the total amount will indicate the amount of the overpayment on the loan. And the loan payment the total amount will be the payment of the principal debt + interest for the entire period of the loan. So it is possible to check the correctness of calculations.

Note

The increase in the cost of credit is influenced by hidden fees in the shape of commissions, insurances, payments for opening and maintaining the accounts and other payments.

# Advice 6: As in the calculator to calculate percentages

Percentage is one hundredth part of some quantity and used for comparison of this quantity with a part, measured in such units. The percentage can always be represented in the form of fractions and convert to decimal in the usual way - for example, using the calculator.

You will need

- ОС Windows.

Instruction

1

If you have the opportunity to use the computer, engage in calculations built into it the calculator. Open the main menu with the button "start" on the taskbar, or Win key on the keyboard. From the keyboard type and the two letters "ka" then press Enter. This is the easiest way to call the calculator, but you can look for the appropriate link in the main menu - it is placed in the subsection "Standard" under "All programs."

2

Make in the mind of an ordinary fraction, the more the sequence of operations that need to be done using the calculator. In the numerator of this fraction shall be the value corresponding to one hundred percent multiplied by the percentage that you want to calculate, and the denominator of put 100. For example, to find 12% of 24000 fraction should consist of 24000*12 in the numerator and 100 in the denominator. This means that the sequence of operations in the calculator will be like this: 24000 * 12 / 100.

3

Start typing all the characters of the sequence are composed in the previous step. If it is possible - just copy it (Ctrl + C) and paste into the calculator (Ctrl + V). If you are more used to use the mouse, click on the relevant buttons with numerals and signs in the program interface.

4

Press Enter or click the button with the equal sign on the screen. The calculator will display the result of the calculation.

5

From the sequence of operations we can eliminate the division by 100, if you use the button with the % symbol in the calculator interface. In this case, first type the number that corresponds to one hundred percent used in the above example is 24000. Then press the star (multiplication sign) and enter the desired number of interest - in example is 12. To complete the procedure, click on the % button, and the calculator will display 2880. From any way the result can be copied (Ctrl + C) and move at any desired application - for example, in a text editor.