You will need
- cardboard circle divided into equal sectors;
- - items that can be divided (apples, candy, etc.).
Take a pear and offer it to two children at once. They will tell you that it's impossible. Cut the fruit and again invite the children. Each will get the same half. Thus, half of the pear is part of the pear. And the pear consists of two parts.
One half is the part from the whole, 1/2. So a fraction is a number that is part of the object is smaller than one. Also the fraction is the number of parts from some things. Specific things children can understand much easier than the abstract the abstract concepts.
Take two candies and ask the child to divide them equally between two people. He can easily do so. Take one candy and then ask him to do the same. There is a way out, if the candy is cut in half. Then you and the child will have one whole candy bar and half - half candy.
Use the cut cardboard circle that you can divide by 2, 4, 6, 8 parts. Count with the child how many in the circle parts, for example, six. Pull out one section. This will be part of the total number of sections (6), that is, one-sixth.
How many pieces did you take is the numerator, that is, one. The denominator is how many parts did you divide the circle, i.e., six. So, the fraction shows the ratio of the removed partitions to their total number. If you take the four sections are then pulled out of the five sections, and hence the fraction takes the form — 5/6.
If counting is mastered the child is good, offer to play him in a familiar game, slightly changing the rules. Draw on the pavement in chalk classics and put not a natural number (1, 2, 3...), and fractional (1, 1 1/2, 2, 2 1/2...). Explain to your child that numbers are intermediate values. For these purposes, you can use a ruler.
Explain that the number zero cannot be the denominator. Zero means "nothing", and nothing share impossible. For clarity, draw a sign that the child worked visual memory and he remembered this rule.
Advice 2: How to resolve fraction in mathematics
The solution of numerical fractions is to hold over them different operations. Addition, subtraction, division, multiplication of fractions is carried out according to certain rules as other actions. Many of them are performed by calculating a common denominator and bring it to each member of the expression. The solution to fractions with a selected part is only after their reduction to the wrong kind. Obtained as the result of any operation with fractions fractional value must be reduced.
Record the source expression. All fractions with integer part lead to the wrong kind. To do this, multiply the integer part of the fraction to its denominator. To the result add the numerator - the resulting value will be the new numerator of the improper fraction. Further, all operations follow this form of fraction.
When you add or subtract fractions, find their common denominator. In the General case, the common denominator is the product of all denominators solve fractions. Multiply the numerator of each fraction by the denominator of the other fraction. If the operation is performed over more than two fractions, the numerators must be multiplied by the product of the denominators of the other fractions.
Write down the resulting expression is a fraction where the denominator is just found a common denominator. Calculate the numerator of the resulting fraction. It is the result of operation (addition or subtraction) over all the given denominators solve fractions.
In order to perform the multiplication operation, in turn multiply the numerators and the denominators of the original fractions. The resulting works write the resulting fraction as the numerator and the denominator, respectively.
Before the operation of division write down the original fractions. Then perform the coup of the fractionyou are dividing. Then perform the multiplication of fractions, as described above. The result will be equal to the quotient of the given fractions.
Sometimes fractions are of the form "of the four" expressions. This means that the upper roll must be cut at the bottom. Write a division operation using the symbol ":" and perform the division of fractions similar to the above described.
Received the fractional result of any actions reduce to the maximum possible number. To reduce the divide both the numerator and denominator of the fraction to the same integer. The result of the division must also be an integer. The total value write down in response.
Advice 3: How to explain fractions
Specific values acquired by children is much better than the abstract. How to explain to a childwhat is two thirds? The concept of fractions requires a special presentation. There are some methods to help you understand what is a non-integer number.
You will need
- - special Lotto;
- - Apple and candy;
- circle of cardboard, consisting of several parts;
- - chalky.
Try to interest the child. On the walk, play a special classics. If in normal you have to jump tired, and the expense of child well-mastered, try this option. Draw hopscotch with chalk on the pavement as shown in the picture and explain to your child that you can jump so: 1 - 2 - 3... and 1 - 1,5 - 2 - 2,5 ... the Kids love to play and so they better understand what between the numbers, there are intermediate values. Is your first and solid step towards the study of rational numbers. A great visual aid.
Take the whole Apple and offer it simultaneously to two children. They immediately will tell you that this is impossible. Then cut the Apple and invite them again. Now everything is in order. everyone got the same half of the Apple. This is part of one whole.
Invite the child to share four candy with you in half. It is easy to do. Then get another one and offer to do the same. It is clear that a candy can't get from you and the child. You can find a way, cutting the candy in half. Then everyone has to turn out two candies and one half.
For older children, use split circle. Divide it by 2, 4, 6 or 8 parts. We invite children to take the circle. Then divide it into two halves. Of the two halves will perfectly round, even if you share half with a neighbor on the Desk (the circles should be of the same diameter). Loan divide each half hedgehog half. It turns out that the circle can consist of 4 parts. And each half turns of the two halves. Then on the Board write it in the form of a fraction. Explaining what the numerator (how many pieces picked up) and the denominator (how many parts just divided). So the children easier to learn a difficult concept - a fraction.
Be sure to use visual AIDS in explaining an abstract concept.