Advice 1: How to write ionic equations

From the point of view of the theory of electrolytic dissociation, the solutions of some compounds can conduct electric current, as the decay on the positive and negative particles – ions. Such substances are called electrolytes, which include salt, acids, bases. Most chemical reactions proceeds in solutions, and therefore between the ions, because you need to know how to write ionic equations.
How to write ionic equations
You will need
  • - table of solubility of salts, acids, bases.
Before you start writing ionic equations, you must learn some rules. Insoluble in water, gaseous and multiscaleimage substances (e.g., water) into ions does not decay, and hence write them in molecular form. Also included is the weak electrolytes, such as H2S, H2CO3, H2SO3, and NH4OH. The solubility of compounds can be found on the table of solubility, which is allowed reference material on all types of control. There are all the charges that are inherent in the cations and anions. For the full job, you need to write molecular, ionic full and abbreviated ion equations.
Example No. 1. Write the neutralization reaction between sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide, look at it from the point of view of TED (of the theory of electrolytic dissociation). First, write the reaction equation in molecular form and set up the coefficients.H2SO4 + 2KOH = K2SO4 + 2Н2ОПроанализируйте derived substances for their solubility and dissociation. All connections are water-soluble and therefore dissociate into ions. The exception is water, which does not break up into ions, therefore, will remain in molecular form.Write the complete ionic equation, find the same ions in the left and right sides and emphasize. To reduce the same ions strike them.2H+ +SO4 2- +2K+ +2OH- = 2K+ +SO4 2- + 2Н2ОВ the result is a short ionic equation:2H+ +2OH- = 2Н2ОКоэффициенты in twos can also be reduced:H+ +OH- = H2O
How to write ionic <strong>equation</strong>
Example No. 2. Write the exchange reaction between copper chloride and sodium hydroxide, look at it from the point of view of TED. Write down the reaction equation in molecular form and set up the coefficients. As a result, the formed copper hydroxide precipitate blue. CuCl2 + 2NaOH = Cu(OH) 2↓ +2NaClПроанализируйте all substances to their water solubility – soluble all except copper hydroxide, which on the ions to dissociate is not. Write the complete ionic equation, and emphasize and reduce the same ions:Cu2+ +2Cl- + 2Na+ +2OH- = Cu(OH) 2↓+2Na+ +2Cl-Remains short ion equation:Cu2+ +2OH- = Cu(OH) 2↓
How to write ionic <strong>equation</strong>
Example No. 3. Write the exchange reaction between sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid, consider it from the point of view of TED. Write down the reaction equation in molecular form and set up the coefficients. The reaction produced sodium chloride, and is allocated gaseous substance CO2 (carbon dioxide or carbon oxide (IV)). It is formed by decomposition of carbonic acid is a weak, disintegrating to the oxide and water. Na2CO3 + 2HCl = 2NaCl + CO2↑+Н2ОПроанализируйте all substances for their solubility in water and dissociation. Carbon dioxide leaves the system as gaseous compound, water is madisoniorum substance. All the other substances break up into ions. Write the complete ionic equation, and emphasize and reduce the same ions:2Na+ +CO3 2- +2H+ +2Cl- =2Na+ +2Cl- +CO2↑+Н2ООстается short ionic equation:CO3 2- +2H+ =CO2↑+H2O
How to write ionic <strong>equation</strong>
To determine the number of ions, we need the coefficient before the formula, multiplied by the index.
Useful advice
In the reaction equation be sure to check the coefficients.

Advice 2 : How to write equations of reactions in chemistry

The reaction equation for the conditional entry of a chemical process in which some substances change into different change properties. To write chemical reactions using formulas of the substances and knowledge about the chemical properties of the compounds.
How to write equations of reactions in chemistry
Correctly write the formula, in accordance with their names. For example, aluminium oxide Al₂O₃, index 3 from aluminum (corresponding to its oxidation number in this compound) put near the oxygen, and the index 2 (oxidation state of oxygen) near the aluminium.
If the degree of oxidation of +1 or -1, the index is not assigned. For example, you need to write down the formula of ammonium nitrate. Nitrate acid residue of nitric acid (-NO₃, S. O. -1), ammonium (-NH₄, p. o. +1). Therefore, the formula of the nitrate of ammonium - NH₄ NO₃. Sometimes the oxidation state is specified in the title compound. Sulfur oxide (VI) - SO₃, silica (II) SiO. Some simple substances (gases) is written with index 2: Cl₂, J₂, F₂, O₂, H₂, etc.
You must know which substances react. Visible signs of reaction gas evolution, color change, and sedimentation. Very often, reactions take place without visible changes.
Example 1: neutralization reaction
H₂SO₄ + 2 NaOH → Na₂SO₄ + 2 H₂O
Sodium hydroxide reacts with sulfuric acid to form the soluble salt sodium sulfate and water. The sodium ion is cleaved and connected to the remainder of the acid, replacing the hydrogen. The reaction takes place without external signs.
Example 2: iodoformi sample
SNO + 4 J₂ + 6 NaOH→CHJ₃↓ + 5 NaJ + HCOONa + 5 H₂O
The reaction takes place in several stages. The end result is the deposition of crystals of iodoform yellow color (positive reaction to alcohol).
Example 3:
Zn + K₂SO₄ ≠
The reaction is not possible, because the number of the stress of metals, zinc is second only to potassium and not can displace it from the connections.
The law of conservation of mass States that the mass of substances, which entered into reaction is equal to the mass of the resulting substances. Proper recording of chemical reactions is half the battle. You need to place the coefficients. Begin to equalize with those of compounds in the formulas which contain large indexes.
K₂Cr₂O₇ + 14 HCl → 2 CrCl₃ + 2 KCl + 3 Cl₂↑ + 7 H₂O
Arrange the coefficients start with the potassium bichromate, because its formula contains the highest index (7).
Such accuracy in the recording of the reactions required for calculation of mass, volume, concentration, of the released energy and other values. Be careful. Remember the most common formulae of acids and bases, and acidic residues.

Advice 3 : How to write the equation in word

Work with formulas and equations in office Word, included in Microsoft Office, provides a special utility "equation Editor" that is part of a Math Type program.
How to write the equation in word
Click "start" to bring up the main menu system and navigate to "All programs."
Point to Microsoft Office, and run the Word application.
Open the context menu of the toolbar, click the right mouse button and select "settings".
Click on the "Commands" dialog box settings, and then click "Insert" in the tab "Categories".
Select "equation Editor" and drag the item to any free place on the toolbar of the application window of Word.
How to write the equation in word
Close all open Windows programs if you cannot discovery utility "equation Editor" and expand the "add or remove programs" in control panel, operating system double click to install the required tool.
Specify the application in the list of installed programs and click "Replace".
Enter the command "Add or remove features" and confirm your selection by pressing the "Next"button.
Apply the check box on the "Advanced customization of applications" and confirm the command by pressing the "Next"button.
Open menu "Office Tools" and select "equation Editor".
Select "Run from my computer" and shut down the program.
Return to the main menu "start" and click "Execute" to edit a parameter scaling the utility of "equation Editor".
Type regedit in the Open box, and perform the simultaneous pressing function keys CTRL+A.
Enter the forceopen value in the text field of the search window and click OK to confirm the command.
Open element found forceopen double click and change the setting to 1.
Quit registry editor, and return to the main window of the office application Microsoft Word.
Click the command button the equation editor in the toolbar and adjust the scale for ease of introduction of formulas.
How to write the equation in word
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