Advice 1: How to write the equation of interaction of acids with alkalis

The ability to write equations of the chemical reaction, for example, interaction of acids with alkalismay be useful during the practical works, laboratory experiments, and in testing during the exam in chemistry.
How to write the equation of interaction of acids with alkalis
You will need
  • The table of solubility of acids, salts, bases
Acid is complex substances that consist of atoms of hydrogen and acidstion of residues, for example, hydrochloric (HCl), sulfuric (H2SO4), nitric (HNO3).
The Foundation is a complex substances that consist of atoms of metals and of hydroxyl groups. Water soluble bases are called alkalis. These include such compounds as sodium hydroxide (NaOH), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and others. Their solubility can be determined according to the table, as it is reference material, which along with the table of D. I. Mendeleev required on all types of control, including the exam in chemistry (in each CIMA).
The interaction of acids with alkalis is otherwise known as neutralization reaction, so as to produce salt and water. The salt may be formed as the middle, and sour. Also similar to the interaction of substances can be attributed to the exchange reaction because of the acids and alkalis are exchanged between its constituent parts.
Example No. 1. Write the reaction equation of interaction of hydrochloric acidwith sodium hydroxide. In this reaction an atom of hydrogen in hydrochloric acid (HCl) changes places with the sodium atom in the alkali - sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The result is a salt – sodium chloride (NaCl) and water (H2O). Thus, the alkali neutralized the acid. In this reaction equation arrange the coefficients is not necessary, as the number of atoms of each element that is included as original substances and reaction products, is the same. HCl + NaOH = NaCl + Н2ОАналогично, without the coefficients will look like the equation, if for the reaction to take of nitric acid (HNO3) and potassium hydroxide (KOH).HNO3 + KOH = KNO3 + H2O
Example No. 2. Write the reaction equation of interaction of sulfuric acid, (H2SO4) with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). In this reaction equation 2 hydrogen atoms of sulfuric acid, (H2SO4) menyayutsya one calcium atom included in alkali – calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). Asáaáresult, the formed salt is calcium sulfate (CaSO4) and water (H2O). Arrange the necessary factors by the method of substitution, increasing the number of water molecules to 2.H2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 = CaSO4 + 2H2O
Example No. 3. Write the reaction equation of interaction of sulfuric acid, (H2SO4) with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). If a job is not specifically set forth the conditions of the reaction, it is assumed that salt will be formed only average - in this case sodium sulfate (Na2SO4).H2SO4 + 2NaOH = Na2SO4 + 2Н2ООднако if the condition says that the reaction occurs with an excess of acids (or concentrated), in this case, a salt acid – hydrosulfate sodium (nahso4 solution)H2SO4 + NaOH = nahso4 solution + 2H2O
In the arrangement of the coefficients remember that the number of atoms of each element of the original substances must be the same number of atoms of the elements in the reaction products.

Advice 2 : How to write the equation of the tangent

The tangent to the curve is a straight line, which is adjacent to this curve at a given point, that is, passes through it so that in a small area around this point is possible without much loss of accuracy, replace curve segment tangent. If this curve is the graph of a function, tangent to it is possible to build a special equation.
How to write the equation of the tangent
Suppose you have a graph of some function. Through two points lying on the graph, you can draw a straight line. Such a line crossing the graph of the given function at two points is called a secant.

If, leaving the first location on the ground, gradually moving in the direction of the second point, then the secant line will gradually turn around, trying to any particular position. In the end, when the two points will merge into one, clipping will fit tightly to your sense of in this one point. In other words, the secant will become a tangent.
Any sloping (i.e. not vertical) straight line on the coordinate plane is the graph of the equation y = kx + b. The secant passing through the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2), must, therefore, satisfy the conditions:
kx1 + b = y1, kx2 + b = y2.
Solving this system of two linear equations, we get: kx2 - kx1 = y2 - y1. Thus, k = (y2 - y1)/(x2 - x1).
When the distance between x1 and x2 tends to zero, the differences become differentials. Thus, the equation of the tangent passing through the point (x0, y0) the factor k is equal to ∂y0/∂x0 = f'(x0), that is, the value of the derivative of f(x) at the point x0.
To find the coefficient b, substitute the computed value of k in the equation f'(x0)*x0 + b = f(x0). Solving this equation for b, we get b = f(x0) - f'(x0)*x0.
The final version of the equation of the tangent to the graph of the given function at the point x0 looks like this:
y = f'(x0)*(x - x0) + f(x0).
As an example, consider the equation of the tangent to the function f(x) = x^2 at the point x0 = 3. Derivative of x^2 equal to 2x. Therefore, the equation of the tangent becomes:
y = 6*(x - 3) + 9 = 6x - 9.
The correctness of this equation easy to check. Graph the line y = 6x - 9 passes through the same point (3;9) as the original parabola. By building two graphs, you can see that this video really fits to the parabola at this point.
Thus, the graph of the function has a tangent at the point x0 only when the function has a derivative at this point. If at the point x0, the function has a discontinuity of the second kind, then the tangent becomes vertical asymptote. However, the mere existence of the derivative at the point x0 does not guarantee the indispensable existence of the tangent at that point. For example, the function f(x) = |x| at the point x0 = 0 is continuous and differentiable, but draw a tangent to it at this point is impossible. The standard formula in this case yields the equation y = 0, but this line is not tangent to the graph module.

Advice 3 : How to write the equation in word

Work with formulas and equations in office Word, included in Microsoft Office, provides a special utility "equation Editor" that is part of a Math Type program.
How to write the equation in word
Click "start" to bring up the main menu system and navigate to "All programs."
Point to Microsoft Office, and run the Word application.
Open the context menu of the toolbar, click the right mouse button and select "settings".
Click on the "Commands" dialog box settings, and then click "Insert" in the tab "Categories".
Select "equation Editor" and drag the item to any free place on the toolbar of the application window of Word.
How to write the equation in word
Close all open Windows programs if you cannot discovery utility "equation Editor" and expand the "add or remove programs" in control panel, operating system double click to install the required tool.
Specify the application in the list of installed programs and click "Replace".
Enter the command "Add or remove features" and confirm your selection by pressing the "Next"button.
Apply the check box on the "Advanced customization of applications" and confirm the command by pressing the "Next"button.
Open menu "Office Tools" and select "equation Editor".
Select "Run from my computer" and shut down the program.
Return to the main menu "start" and click "Execute" to edit a parameter scaling the utility of "equation Editor".
Type regedit in the Open box, and perform the simultaneous pressing function keys CTRL+A.
Enter the forceopen value in the text field of the search window and click OK to confirm the command.
Open element found forceopen double click and change the setting to 1.
Quit registry editor, and return to the main window of the office application Microsoft Word.
Click the command button the equation editor in the toolbar and adjust the scale for ease of introduction of formulas.
How to write the equation in word

Advice 4 : How to neutralize phytic acid in cereals

As soon as it comes about healthy eating or losing weight, all the first to remember about the benefits of oatmeal. However, due to its high concentration in phytic acid nutritionists advise to drink oatmeal more often than 2 times a week. Because this insidious acid "steals" calcium from the body.
How to neutralize phytic acid in cereals

In fact, phytic acid contained not only in oatmeal. Any whole grains, legumes, raw seeds and nuts, wheat germ abound in this antinutrient. Especially a lot of phytic acid in the bran. I must say that the above are the most useful, healthy foods is essential to everyone. But everything is good in moderation. We proceed to the detriment of phytic acid begins only when accumulated in the body a fair amount.

It interacts, if it failed to neutralize in the process of cooking food, in the intestine with calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, copper, iron, and inhibits their absorption by the body. To the above-mentioned, phytic acid inhibits the activity of enzymes that are designed to break down protein.

Therefore, you should think seriously before to go on a strict diet of oatmeal water, beans and raw nuts. As a result, you allow your body to demineralization. However, it is not necessary to panic. You just need to comply with the measure and learn how to cook whole grains. That is, previously to ferment.

Ruminants in the rumen produce a special enzyme - picazo, which promotes better assimilation of phytic acid. The human intestinal microflora also has this ability, but in much smaller amounts. The production of phytase can be activated in the grains that occurs during the long soak (12-24 hours).

But keep in mind that you cannot soak grits before cooking in hot water, because when temperatrue 80 degrees phytase will be destroyed in just 10 minutes, and the effect will be. the water should be komnenoi temperature or 40 degrees. Better the fermentation in an acidic environment, so you can add a few drops of lemon juice or malic acid.

Different grains are able to allocate different amounts of phytase to phytic acid destruction. So, oats, corn, millet, brown rice, even during prolonged soaking is not able to eliminate all the phytic acid. Therefore, you should at least eat these products. And cook them only after daily soaking.


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