Advice 1: How to determine the level of hemoglobin in the blood

Hemoglobin, a major component of bloodthat carries oxygen from the lungs to all tissues and removes carbon dioxide from the body and is involved in the regulation of acid-base balance. The level of hemoglobin assesses the state of human health, during the treatment of a disease – the effectiveness of doctor prescribed drugs. Most often the analysis for its determination is carried out in a medical facility, although in recent times there were such devices that allow you to find this option without leaving home.
How to determine the level of hemoglobin in the blood
To find out the level of hemoglobin in the blood, you need to have a blood test that involves identifying, in addition to hemoglobin, white blood cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
If you are assigned to a General analysis of blood, then you need to take it in the morning. At this time, the amount of hemoglobin in the body a little (within 4-5%) more. The lowest level is observed within two hours after a meal, especially a liquid. Therefore, before donating blood you must not eat.
12 hours prior to analysis eliminate consumption of alcohol and try not to smoke, because the result will be unreliable. If you smoke, tell the technician who does the blood draws. Also before the visit to the laboratory avoid strenuous activity.
Warn your doctor if you are allergic to latex (used to make medical gloves, band-AIDS, ACE bandages, etc.) and if during the previous procedures you have had nausea, dizziness or fainting. Do not forget to specify the drugs you take: some of them may increase bleeding. Also the doctor needs to know whether you are pregnant, because women in this position, the hemoglobin level is reduced by 15%.
The most simple method, the level of hemoglobin is determined in a colorimeter–geometre Sali, which represents the tripod vertical nests. The nest is placed in a sealed test tube with the standard colours and glass vial with a scale, which poured the hydrochloric acid in your blood. After 5 minutes, when a chemical reaction takes place, this mixture is compared with the color samples. It usually turns darker (lighter is only in the case of severe anemia). Then added to the mixture drop by drop with distilled water until until it is compared with the color standards. The result is noted by tick marks on the scale.
This method is simple and affordable, so they are still used in many clinics. But it is not precise and requires a lot of time to execute. There are other colorimeters – lamps that use cyanmethemoglobin method for determining the level of hemoglobin. It is also based on chemical reactions of the blood with certain chemicals.
If you have such a need, you can buy one of the modern glucose meters that in house conditions it is possible to measure the level of blood sugar, cholesterol and hemoglobin. With such a device acquires special test strips, using which you will obtain the necessary indicators. You should know that the rate of hemoglobin for women – from 120 to 140 grams per liter for men – from 130 to 160 g/L. If this level is lowered, it may indicate anaemia or the existence of any chronic diseases. Elevated levels are also often indicates problems in the body.

Advice 2: Where the carbon dioxide is carried away by blood

In the human body inhaled oxygen undergoes a series of transformations. From the lungs through the blood it is carried to the organs and is involved there in vital chemical reactions. Then the red blood cells transporterowych it through the veins back to the Airways in the form of carbonic acid. The smallest vesicles of the lungs - the alveoli - are collected, this chemical compound in your capillaries, where carbon dioxide gas takes its classic look. In this form the person it exhales.
Where the carbon dioxide is carried away by blood
Carbon dioxide gas (CO2) is a product of metabolism occurring in the human body. Formed in tissue cells gas moved by diffusion in the tissue capillaries. Once in the erythrocytes, the carbon dioxide gas comes into chemical interaction with water, and the result is carbonic acid. This reaction is catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase - specific enzyme, which is deployed only in the red blood cells. In plasma it is not.The reaction occurring in the erythrocytes, does not allow the concentration of carbon dioxide gasand in these cells to reach high numbers. As a result, in the red blood cells are constantly new molecules diffuse gas. Osmotic pressure within blood cells increases and with it increases the water content. This leads to the increase in the volume of red blood cells.Changes in cells lead to the emergence of "Haldane effect". The essence of the effect that the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin displaces from the blood of carbon dioxide. This is essential in the transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. Transport of carbon is in the form of salts bicarbonates.To carbonic acid is turned into bicarbonate, essential potassium ions. Their source is hemoglobin.As a result of these chemical reactions in tissue capillaries increasing the amount of carbon dioxide gasin the form of potassium bicarbonate. In this way it is easier to transport to the lungs.In the capillaries of the pulmonary circulation, the concentration of carbon dvuokisi low. He split off CO2. At the same time, oxyhemoglobin is formed. It displaces bicarbonate from potassium ions. In red blood cells carbonic acid is split into CO2 and water. Carbon dioxide gas is derived from pulmonary alveoli during the process of exhalation.
Is the advice useful?