Advice 1: How to determine the level of hemoglobin in the blood

Hemoglobin, a major component of bloodthat carries oxygen from the lungs to all tissues and removes carbon dioxide from the body and is involved in the regulation of acid-base balance. The level of hemoglobin assesses the state of human health, during the treatment of a disease – the effectiveness of doctor prescribed drugs. Most often the analysis for its determination is carried out in a medical facility, although in recent times there were such devices that allow you to find this option without leaving home.
How to determine the level of hemoglobin in the blood
To find out the level of hemoglobin in the blood, you need to have a blood test that involves identifying, in addition to hemoglobin, white blood cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
If you are assigned to a General analysis of blood, then you need to take it in the morning. At this time, the amount of hemoglobin in the body a little (within 4-5%) more. The lowest level is observed within two hours after a meal, especially a liquid. Therefore, before donating blood you must not eat.
12 hours prior to analysis eliminate consumption of alcohol and try not to smoke, because the result will be unreliable. If you smoke, tell the technician who does the blood draws. Also before the visit to the laboratory avoid strenuous activity.
Warn your doctor if you are allergic to latex (used to make medical gloves, band-AIDS, ACE bandages, etc.) and if during the previous procedures you have had nausea, dizziness or fainting. Do not forget to specify the drugs you take: some of them may increase bleeding. Also the doctor needs to know whether you are pregnant, because women in this position, the hemoglobin level is reduced by 15%.
The most simple method, the level of hemoglobin is determined in a colorimeter–geometre Sali, which represents the tripod vertical nests. The nest is placed in a sealed test tube with the standard colours and glass vial with a scale, which poured the hydrochloric acid in your blood. After 5 minutes, when a chemical reaction takes place, this mixture is compared with the color samples. It usually turns darker (lighter is only in the case of severe anemia). Then added to the mixture drop by drop with distilled water until until it is compared with the color standards. The result is noted by tick marks on the scale.
This method is simple and affordable, so they are still used in many clinics. But it is not precise and requires a lot of time to execute. There are other colorimeters – lamps that use cyanmethemoglobin method for determining the level of hemoglobin. It is also based on chemical reactions of the blood with certain chemicals.
If you have such a need, you can buy one of the modern glucose meters that in house conditions it is possible to measure the level of blood sugar, cholesterol and hemoglobin. With such a device acquires special test strips, using which you will obtain the necessary indicators. You should know that the rate of hemoglobin for women – from 120 to 140 grams per liter for men – from 130 to 160 g/L. If this level is lowered, it may indicate anaemia or the existence of any chronic diseases. Elevated levels are also often indicates problems in the body.

Advice 2: How to determine cholesterol levels

Cholesterol accumulate on the vessel walls, making them difficult to cross and contributes to the development of relevant diseases. To determine the cholesterol level, you must pass the appropriate analysis. But the development of atherosclerosis is preceded by a number of symptoms and conditions that should alert you.
How to determine cholesterol levels
Analyze your diet. If it is dominated by fatty foods, fried foods, butter and margarine, cheese and eggs, then the level of cholesterol can be somewhat increased.
If your weight is far from the norm, it is likely that the level of cholesterol will also be high. Calculate the norms of weight for age from growth in centimeters, subtract 100 and get your ideal weight in kilograms. Generally, obesity is always accompanied by a high level of cholesterol in the blood.
If you daily do exercises or perform intense exercise several times a week, then the level of cholesterol you have may be normal.
A symptom of deposits of fatty plaques on vessel walls may be the appearance of premature gray hair. If you have gray hair you have more than your peers, then you should get tested to find out your level of cholesterol.
Your appearance can be an indirect sign pointing to the development of atherosclerosis – if you look older than your years, you often assign age, which is far from you, then it may be a symptom of worsening circulation. If a cholesterol plaque slows down blood flow, organs and tissues receive less nutrients – your skin becomes flabby, wrinkles appear early.
If the hands appeared yellowish spots also appeared pigmentation on the eyelids and forehead, then the amount of harmful cholesterol in your blood is already quite high. These yellow spots are dense to the touch and painless.
Consider your iris – if it appeared around greyish or white ring (it is also called "senile arch"), then it may indicate excess fat in the body.
From external signs of excess cholesterol , you can mark up the vertical or diagonal creases in the earlobes, and the presence of hair in the outer ear canal.
If you find one or more of these symptoms or just want to know your level of cholesterol, consult a doctor and take direction on lipidogramu. Donate blood strictly on an empty stomach, the day prior to analysis eliminate physical stress, fatty foods and alcohol.

Advice 3: Where the carbon dioxide is carried away by blood

In the human body inhaled oxygen undergoes a series of transformations. From the lungs through the blood it is carried to the organs and is involved there in vital chemical reactions. Then the red blood cells transporterowych it through the veins back to the Airways in the form of carbonic acid. The smallest vesicles of the lungs - the alveoli - are collected, this chemical compound in your capillaries, where carbon dioxide gas takes its classic look. In this form the person it exhales.
Where the carbon dioxide is carried away by blood
Carbon dioxide gas (CO2) is a product of metabolism occurring in the human body. Formed in tissue cells gas moved by diffusion in the tissue capillaries. Once in the erythrocytes, the carbon dioxide gas comes into chemical interaction with water, and the result is carbonic acid. This reaction is catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase - specific enzyme, which is deployed only in the red blood cells. In plasma it is not.The reaction occurring in the erythrocytes, does not allow the concentration of carbon dioxide gasand in these cells to reach high numbers. As a result, in the red blood cells are constantly new molecules diffuse gas. Osmotic pressure within blood cells increases and with it increases the water content. This leads to the increase in the volume of red blood cells.Changes in cells lead to the emergence of "Haldane effect". The essence of the effect that the binding of oxygen to hemoglobin displaces from the blood of carbon dioxide. This is essential in the transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. Transport of carbon is in the form of salts bicarbonates.To carbonic acid is turned into bicarbonate, essential potassium ions. Their source is hemoglobin.As a result of these chemical reactions in tissue capillaries increasing the amount of carbon dioxide gasin the form of potassium bicarbonate. In this way it is easier to transport to the lungs.In the capillaries of the pulmonary circulation, the concentration of carbon dvuokisi low. He split off CO2. At the same time, oxyhemoglobin is formed. It displaces bicarbonate from potassium ions. In red blood cells carbonic acid is split into CO2 and water. Carbon dioxide gas is derived from pulmonary alveoli during the process of exhalation.

Advice 4: How to increase hemoglobin after birth

Hemoglobin plays an important role in the vital processes of the body. After the birth with blood loss the level is dropping, and this has a negative impact on the health of women. To raise the level of hemoglobin is possible using effective recipes of traditional medicine.
How to increase hemoglobin after birth
You will need
  • - iron tablets;
  • - walnuts;
  • - dried apricots;
  • - prunes;
  • raisins;
  • - med;
  • - Hematogen;
  • - buckwheat.
Prepare nutrient mixture, raising the hemoglobin in the blood. Skip the walnuts, dried apricots, prunes, raisins through a meat grinder, add a little honey. Take the composition one tablespoon a day.
Include in the daily diet foods rich in iron. They can raise the hemoglobin in the blood without the help of medicines. These foods include apples, apricots, apricots, prunes, raisins, black currants, buckwheat porridge, liver, beef, fish and seafood, nuts, gooseberries, parsley, chocolate and cocoa, egg yolk, sesame seeds, wheat bran.
Of these products prepare a variety of dishes. Because nursing mothers are not recommended fried, foods should be cooked, baked or steamed. To raise the hemoglobin to cook and eat boiled beef tongue in the amount of not less than 50 grams per day.
Take daily ground buckwheat. Wash grits, calcined it in a pan and cool. Pitch of buckwheat in a coffee grinder. To give this product a pleasant taste and eat it with an appetite, you can roll pieces of fruit, greenery, ground buckwheat and to use them.
Purchase at the pharmacy and begin taking Hematogen better without additives. Taking it to better align with the doctor.
At very low hemoglobin levels after childbirth, consult a doctor. He will select the medicines containing iron and approved for use in lactation (breastfeeding), for example, "Sobrier" or "Ferratum".
Take drugs in the dose recommended by your doctor. When restoring hemoglobin levels continue treatment for two months at maintenance dose.
Use with caution fruits, vegetables and other products that increase the hemoglobin, as the baby can appear allergic reaction. In this case, exclude this product from the diet.

Advice 5: How many leukocytes in the blood can be considered the norm

Determination of leukocytes in blood is of great importance in medical diagnostics. The normal level indicates that the human body, at the moment, there are no inflammatory processes, infections and viruses. Lowering or raising this level, along with other tests, can accurately diagnose the disease.
Norma leukocytes in the blood.
White blood cells – colorless (white) blood cells in the body, have a rounded or irregular shape and size from 6 to 20 microns. Protect the body from foreign invasions and help fight viruses and bacteria.

Due to its ability to move, leukocytes migrate through the capillary walls into the tissue to the lesions. They absorb the particles of foreign bodies and digest them. This phenomenon is called phagocytosis, the leukocytes absorbers – phagocytes.

With a strong inflammatory processes, absorbing particles of foreign bodies, phagocytes increase in size and die, resulting in the formation of pus.

Norma leukocytes in the blood

Adult men and women normal levels of leukocytes and are approximately the same fluctuating aisles 4x10*9 – 9x10*9/L.
The number of leukocytes (white blood cells) in blood is 1000 times lower than red blood cells or erythrocytes.

In children the number of leukocytes changes with age. The older the child, the lower the rate:
- newborn norm of white blood cells varies from 9 to 30х10*9/l;
- children from 1 year to 3 years, the level of leucocytes in the aisles ranging from 6.0 to 20,0x10*9/l;
- aged 6 to 10 years the rate of leukocytes is 6.0 -11,0x10*9/l;
- in children older than 10 years of age, an indicator of the level of leukocytes will be equal to the index of adult in the aisles 4x10*9 – 9x10*9/L.

The leukocyte count may deviate from the norm in either direction under the influence of the following factors: what time of day, hungry or well-fed people, that eat, relaxed or under stress, physically tired or rested also stay in the sun visiting the baths or saunas etc. Therefore, for a more accurate, a blood test for leukocytes is to sit in the morning on an empty stomach (you can drink some pure water).
The number of platelets in the blood exceeds the number of leukocytes in 40 times.

Abnormalities in blood tests

Abnormalities of leukocyte count talking about any adverse processes in the human body and their severity. And repeated the blood test will help to observe the dynamics of development or recession of the inflammatory process.

Also, an abnormal level of leukocytes in the blood along with other tests and symptoms will help diagnose the patient.

If you lower the number of white blood cells in the blood of the diagnosis leukopenia. It is an indicator in some infectious diseases (measles, tuberculosis, septic), viral infections(typhoid, hepatitis, chickenpox, rubella), and high radiation.

The decrease in the level of leucocytes may be observed after administration of paracetamol and some antibiotics and after chemotherapy.

If elevated white blood cells are diagnosed with leukocytosis. It speaks of inflammatory diseases, suppuration, various infections. It is possible to diagnose acute bleeding, gout, heart attack, severe burns. If leukocytes exceeds the norm by 10 times or more, it may indicate leukemia blood.

Increasing the level of leukocytes in women can be considered normal before menstruation, during pregnancy and especially after birth.
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