Advice 1: How to write a summary

Summary (brief summary, synthesis) is an exercise for the development of written speech in English. Writing the summary is often one of the most difficult tasks for English language learners.
How to write a summary
You will need
  • - article in English;
  • dictionary.
Instruction
1
Find out exactly what kind of work you have to write. Typically, when learning English there are two types: informative and evaluative. Evaluation essay-summary like review books, films or TV shows. In this task it is necessary not only to summarize the content of the story, but also to give their assessment of the work of the author, Director or actors. This type of work is quite complex and requires a high level of proficiency, therefore, these jobs rarely found outside of language departments. Informative summary briefly outlines the content of any article, its main meaning. In the methodology of teaching foreign languages this kind of work is sometimes called referencing.
2
Review the material on which you will write a summary. If you work with article, examine its output. Skim read the text to identify its main idea.
3
Read the article a second time. At this stage, read carefully, examining all the turns of phrase and translating unfamiliar words. Identify and write down key words and phrases. Can you briefly formulate the essence of each paragraph of the text and to make a preliminary plan of your summary.
4
Work on a plan. Some of the paragraphs of the article similar in content can be combined into one paragraph. It is necessary to take into account the semantic content of individual paragraphs, rather than their size.
5
Try to convey the content of each item of the plan one or two sentences. You can use ready-made snippets of text from the article or try to summarise the idea in your own words.
6
Start writing summary. You should get a brief retelling of the article, constituting approximately one-quarter of its original volume. In the first sentence, enter the title of the article, author's name and output. Then use you have prepared a brief summary of the basic content of the text.

Advice 2: How to write Japanese words

Japanese language, despite its complexity, is becoming increasingly popular. There are more Japanese cartoons, products. And even the person who didn't study this language, you may want or need to write a word or phrase in Japanese. How to do it correctly? Sites created by Russian fans of Japanese culture and language, and also dictionaries will help you with this.
How to write Japanese words
You will need
  • computer;
  • - access to the Internet;
  • - Russian-Japanese dictionary.
Instruction
1
Find Russian-Japanese dictionary. You can get it from the library or use the online dictionary on one of the dedicated Japanese language websites. Please note that the dictionary which you choose, should contain not only the transcription of Japanese words in Russian letters, but the characters in which these words are written.
2
If you want to use an Internet dictionary, but your computer can not properly display characters, download language support Japanese language. Use the installation disk that came with your computer upon purchase.
3
Look in the dictionary for a word. It can be written as a single character, or several, it can also contain letters of the Japanese syllabary.
4
Rewrite the desired word based on the rules of Japanese writing. In this language the words and sentences you can write in two ways: either in a column, positioning the characters and the signs of the syllabary from right to left, or in line, left to right. And he and the other variant of the record is correct.
5
If you want to write in Japanese Russian name or title, use the Japanese syllabary. There are two hiragana and katakana. To write foreign words in Japanese use katakana.
6
Locate the table of conformity of Russian letters and the Japanese alphabet of katakana on the Internet.
7
Pick a letter, matching sound to write the necessary name. The spelling of the name may be distorted - the Japanese alphabet consists of syllables, it lacks some of the listeners in the Russian language sounds such as "l". In this case, select a syllable similar in sound.
Note
If you need to write a whole phrase or sentence in Japanese, take the phrase from examples of translations in the dictionary. You can't without getting proper training with the teacher themselves to make a correct and meaningful sentence.

Advice 3: How to write a brief summary

Statement - a short written retelling of the heard or read text. This is one of the types of creative work along with writing and dictation used in schools to develop the students skills in spelling and objective analysis.
How to write a brief summary
Instruction
1
First, you need to determine the style and type of the work. A brief statement should concisely convey the main idea of the full text, sequence the events, the names of characters, time date, etc. On the nature of the analyzed works, we can differentiate several types of presentation: narrative, descriptive, and narrative reasoning. Usually use not one but a combination of several types, for example, a narrative presentation with elements of description or reasoning.
2
Narrative description of the simplest type, in which it is important to first properly convey the basic meaning and the sequence of actions, the storyline. While the summaries must be informative, without flowery descriptions and abstract phrases. The main thing - to give basic information about what is happening in the text.
3
Determine the Central idea of the work and its main characters, divide the text into subtopics. Highlight the main actions and fix all the details without which the story would be incomplete. Think as short as possible to Express the idea contained in each fragment. Make a plan. Write a draft, reread, make any necessary edits or additions.
4
Narrative description is the most difficult type of work. In the original texts, as a rule, there are descriptions of places or items of importance from the point of view of the author. This can be a person's appearance, façade or house decoration, architectural elements (a balcony, porch, etc.), household items, clothing, etc.
5
You first need to understand what things are and why the author wanted to highlight in his work, how he did it, as expressed in the text. To do this, answer the following questions: which parts of the object and why have a detailed description; what qualities or characteristics of an object need to pay attention to which the smallest details are important not to miss; does the text compare features of different objects or people and on what basis; what means the author used to transmit nuances.
6
Presentation-the reasoning involves the use of logic, analysis, expression of thoughts, opinions. It is important not only to convey the meaning of the work, but to answer the questions "why did this happen?" "where will this lead?", "who is to blame?", etc. To do this, select the text points that can cause some arguments, try to make their own conclusions, build their idea, developing or supplementing referred to in the text. Narrative, as a rule, this type does not provide as arguments are difficult to Express in a condensed form.
Note
Do not forget to check the spelling.
Useful advice
Always use draft.
Learn to distinguish between significant and insignificant details, try to write concisely. Replace too long sentences shorter own, but without losing the meaning.

Advice 4: How to write an autobiography in the Ukrainian language

Autobiography require most often when applying for a job, applying for study or service to inform the organization about the man, his life in a certain period of time in a free form, about where he studied or worked.
How to write an autobiography in the Ukrainian language
You will need
  • dictionary;
  • - employment history.
Instruction
1
Introduce yourself, write information about yourself: surname, name and patronymic, as well as specify the year of birth and address of residence. For example, "I - Petrova Maria Ivanovna, born in 1980, residing at the address: Murmansk, street Garden, d. 210".
2
Once you have submitted, enter information about your education in chronological order of receipt as the beginning of life is always education and after the work. The autobiography is written depending on the purpose of further use, it can also indicate schooling. However, most of the description starts with special education, therefore specify the school year, as called the school and major you received.
3
Next, enter in his autobiography, refresher courses, retraining, workshops and seminars. Be sure to specify what year was that received additional education on the topic of seminars, workshops or courses.
4
Complete the secondary information block autobiography, information about your experience. Start from first job, specify the name of the organization, year of admission, position, duties, date and reason for dismissal. In chronological order, list all places of work.
5
Write information on incentives, promotions and awards. If the period of illness or vacation of your supervisor you replaced, then be sure to specify this in his autobiography.
6
Specify other responsibilities, such as if you give lectures in schools or are teaching.
7
Besides study and work, specify in the biography of your family structure. In the concluding paragraph of his autobiography, specify the total length of your employment.
8
The finished autobiography translated with a translator program, for example, Promt or native speaker. To translate with the program, then copy the CV and choose the Ukrainian language, hit the translate button, the text will save in Word as a separate file.
Note
When writing his autobiography, don't use epithets, metaphors, colloquial and vernacular language.
Useful advice
The dictionary can translate the autobiography is inaccurate, so before sending the resume to the employer ask the native speaker to check it.

Advice 5: How to write an article in English

Highly qualified specialists in different fields can face a situation when they need to bring their knowledge not only for Russia but also for the English-speaking public. In this case, with sufficient knowledge of the language they can write an article in English without translation services.
How to write an article in English
Instruction
1
Read a few English articles on the same topic on which you are going to create their own. This will help you not only to understand the structure of a text and find the words and phrases of the specific professional vocabulary that will help you more intelligently Express their thoughts.
2
Pick up the appropriate dictionaries. They will be useful to you, even if you know the English language. For example, they need to find synonyms. A good tool will be the Oxford dictionary and various reference books on professional subjects.
3
Decide how you will create the text. You have at least two possibilities. You can first write the text in Russian and then translate it in English, or originally to make it in a foreign language. The first option is more appropriate for those who are not yet confident in your knowledge of English.
4
Start writing an article. It is advisable to finish the main part, and then, in accordance with the text, adding an introduction and conclusion. In the introduction it is best to announce the plan of the article. This tradition is followed by many English-speaking journalists and scholars to facilitate the task of the reader.
5
Re-read the resulting text. Try to check some points doubtful, for example, the spelling of geographical names and proper names. Especially pay attention to the names of historical characters, if they appear in your text. By tradition established in Russian historiography in the eighteenth century under the rule of the German historical school, the names of the rulers of European States are written in their German version. For example, king William in the English-language article should bear the name of William (William).
6
Hand in your article for review to another person who knows English. The best way to approach the native speaker.
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