Advice 1: How to write a summary

Summary (brief summary, synthesis) is an exercise for the development of written speech in English. Writing the summary is often one of the most difficult tasks for English language learners.
How to write a summary
You will need
  • - article in English;
  • dictionary.
Instruction
1
Find out exactly what kind of work you have to write. Typically, when learning English there are two types: informative and evaluative. Evaluation essay-summary like review books, films or TV shows. In this task it is necessary not only to summarize the content of the story, but also to give their assessment of the work of the author, Director or actors. This type of work is quite complex and requires a high level of proficiency, therefore, these jobs rarely found outside of language departments. Informative summary briefly outlines the content of any article, its main meaning. In the methodology of teaching foreign languages this kind of work is sometimes called referencing.
2
Review the material on which you will write a summary. If you work with article, examine its output. Skim read the text to identify its main idea.
3
Read the article a second time. At this stage, read carefully, examining all the turns of phrase and translating unfamiliar words. Identify and write down key words and phrases. Can you briefly formulate the essence of each paragraph of the text and to make a preliminary plan of your summary.
4
Work on a plan. Some of the paragraphs of the article similar in content can be combined into one paragraph. It is necessary to take into account the semantic content of individual paragraphs, rather than their size.
5
Try to convey the content of each item of the plan one or two sentences. You can use ready-made snippets of text from the article or try to summarise the idea in your own words.
6
Start writing summary. You should get a brief retelling of the article, constituting approximately one-quarter of its original volume. In the first sentence, enter the title of the article, author's name and output. Then use you have prepared a brief summary of the basic content of the text.

Advice 2: How to write a brief summary

Statement - a short written retelling of the heard or read text. This is one of the types of creative work along with writing and dictation used in schools to develop the students skills in spelling and objective analysis.
How to write a brief summary
Instruction
1
First, you need to determine the style and type of the work. A brief statement should concisely convey the main idea of the full text, sequence the events, the names of characters, time date, etc. On the nature of the analyzed works, we can differentiate several types of presentation: narrative, descriptive, and narrative reasoning. Usually use not one but a combination of several types, for example, a narrative presentation with elements of description or reasoning.
2
Narrative description of the simplest type, in which it is important to first properly convey the basic meaning and the sequence of actions, the storyline. While the summaries must be informative, without flowery descriptions and abstract phrases. The main thing - to give basic information about what is happening in the text.
3
Determine the Central idea of the work and its main characters, divide the text into subtopics. Highlight the main actions and fix all the details without which the story would be incomplete. Think as short as possible to Express the idea contained in each fragment. Make a plan. Write a draft, reread, make any necessary edits or additions.
4
Narrative description is the most difficult type of work. In the original texts, as a rule, there are descriptions of places or items of importance from the point of view of the author. This can be a person's appearance, façade or house decoration, architectural elements (a balcony, porch, etc.), household items, clothing, etc.
5
You first need to understand what things are and why the author wanted to highlight in his work, how he did it, as expressed in the text. To do this, answer the following questions: which parts of the object and why have a detailed description; what qualities or characteristics of an object need to pay attention to which the smallest details are important not to miss; does the text compare features of different objects or people and on what basis; what means the author used to transmit nuances.
6
Presentation-the reasoning involves the use of logic, analysis, expression of thoughts, opinions. It is important not only to convey the meaning of the work, but to answer the questions "why did this happen?" "where will this lead?", "who is to blame?", etc. To do this, select the text points that can cause some arguments, try to make their own conclusions, build their idea, developing or supplementing referred to in the text. Narrative, as a rule, this type does not provide as arguments are difficult to Express in a condensed form.
Note
Do not forget to check the spelling.
Useful advice
Always use draft.
Learn to distinguish between significant and insignificant details, try to write concisely. Replace too long sentences shorter own, but without losing the meaning.
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