Advice 1: How to make a carriage out of wood

Skills cartastrophe was almost lost during the Soviet era. However, in pre-Soviet times, the best coaches were made by the French. Russian craftsmen they were repaired. Mainly in Russia made carriage-caravan designed for long movements on the road. To make the carriage with their hands an art, but it's not too difficult, if there are ready-made drawings and photos of the process.
How to make a carriage out of wood
You will need
  • - sheets of plywood (4-5 pieces);
  • - jigsaw;
  • - sandpaper;
  • circular saw;
  • - colourless varnish;
  • - material for upholstery;
  • bolts;
  • - screws;
  • - the drill.
to make bкарету/b from anderea/em" class="colorbox imagefield imagefield-imagelink" rel="gallery-step-images"> Take a sheet of plywood (because the coach is a product of the street) size 9x2500x1250 see Mark sawed it into three parts so that the sizes of the two were 1250x700 cm, and the third 1250x1100 see
Saw all the parts on the drawn contour. Mark and carefully cut out doors and Windows. In the process of cutting out doors to save material drill in the corners of the hole, and then proprivate using a hand fret saw (about 0, 5 cm). Then you can continue to work with the jigsaw. This will give the possibility of using sawn parts in the further manufacture of the carriage.
Get two smaller pieces of plywood in half, later they will be glued together. It is important that the inner part was slightly smaller than the outer: this will allow to lean on them front and back wall, and doors and Windows. Glue the resulting pieces together. For this purpose you can use PVA glue. The more clamps you have, the better, but should have no less than twelve pieces.
Once glued to the sides, glue the ceiling and the bottom of the carriage. Distance between the uprights should be such that they rest on the edge of the front and rear walls when gluing the front and the back. Twist the rack with screws and screwdriver, simultaneously aligning the notched parts among themselves, as they will rely on both walls.
Go to the front and rear walls. Their sizes are easy to identify: use the normal roulette. Make Windows like you like. The only point to consider is that the anterior wall is the seat of the coachman: you need to leave space for him.
On the back wall make the window slightly bigger than the sides, because there will be seat passengers. Windows already cut out and glued to the walls (for this, use a circular saw). The optimal interval between cuts is fifteen inches. The depth should be equal to approximately six centimeters.
The body is ready, go to the manufacture of the frame. Take the glued shield (or two of plywood 18 mm thick) of size 400х1500мм. Transfer it to the drawing frame and saw. Finish the edges with sandpaper. Take one of the leftover material and give it a size 400x455 mm. With it, you connect the preceding details between themselves.
Prepare the site for the rear of the Luggage and the driver. Each of the sidewalls fabricated lining. To begin, draw the bottom part cut out. Attach it to the sidewall, departing from the bottom of the nine, draw the top part. Cut out, glue the finished lining on the inner part of the sidewalls. In the future they will need for the manufacture of floor and protect the bottom. For the back use the second segment of the shield. Cut it down to size, one edge sloping (45 degrees).
Drill holes in the lateral parts of the items received. For the side bracket holes use the drill to drill under an angle of 90 degrees. Put the detail in place and loosely tighten the three screws from different sides. Use the remaining holes as guide and the bottom of the carriage. Put all the glue, attach with screws and clamps.
Proceed to the production floor to the coachman. Prepare two sheets of the plywood sheet: size 290х350мм the first and the second 290х500мм. Cut the last sheet to a depth of 6 mm with the interval of 15mm to 300mm length. Put a large sheet using clamps. Grab a sheet several screws for greater reliability. Stick on top of small sheet, glue the bandwagon from pre-sawn boards.
Do the Windows and curtains on doors. For this purpose, you need a thin plastic. As it is sold in rolls, you will need to flatten it, dipping in boiling water. Saw out and grind the bars for doors and Windows with the jigsaw and sandpaper. Insert the window and doorway.
For the upholstery of the seat, hold stuff (velvet paper). Cut a template from hardboard, glue them on the matter. Trim it with the stock. Secure edge construction stapler. Make the same way all of the side wall.
Proceed to the manufacture of wheels. Buy glued in size 500x200 mm. Sawed it into four pieces. Two piece cut out circles with a diameter of 450 mm for the rear wheels. The front wheel diameter will be less than about 250-300 mm.
Apply another circle on the circles (400 mm) and a small circle under the hub (the eye). Divide the circle into 10 parts, using the protractor. Draw two circles in the area of future spokes (equal segments above and below). Draw spokes with patterns.
Drill holes and saw out. Buy ready axis for the wheels (the process of production rather time-consuming). Drill each wheel hole under the axle and try it. Treat design with a wire brush and cover the whole with varnish. Finished the front wheels and assemble the entire structure. Coach is over.

Advice 2: How to draw the carriage

In the past century carriages used for transporting people, including over long distances. In modern life these vehicles are only used for decorating wedding ceremonies.
How to draw the carriage
Draw the body of the carriage. If your goal is to portray the crew, which was carrying people between cities, make the carriage sturdy, solid, so she was able to overcome a considerable distance. The walls should be thick enough, make the bottom flat. If you draw a fabulous coach, will render it light and airy. The bottom round, make the roof domed.
Draw the springs of the vehicle. They look like a curved line, attached to the bottom of the carriage. The curves on both sides of the body draw the wheels. Draw them in the spokes and attaching to the axle. If desired, the front wheels can be made smaller than the rear.
Draw on the body of the door and the window – they can be any shape. The Windows draw the blinds. If your coach is designed for summer walks, make it open, leave only the roof and low side walls connected by four arcs.
Draw a place for the coachman at the front of the carriage. It is high enough to control a horse (or fairy tale character) could see the space over the heads of the animals. Don't forget that the place of the coachman must conform to the General appearance of the carriage. Make pristupu for the pages at the back of the carriage.
Decorate the carriage. Draw on it monogram, ornament of curls. At the Windows hang lanterns. On the roof of the build out of a complex pattern, cast in metal, the boundary between it and the side walls also adorn the cast. Door draw handle.
Remember that carriage ride herself can not, therefore, draw the shafts leading from the carriage to harness horse, and the animals themselves. Make sure that the size of the horses matched the carriage, and the people who go. Typically, carriage, harness a pair or four horses. Decorate the harness of animals, draw blankets on their backs and sultans on their heads.

Advice 3: Wood varnish for exterior use – the beauty of the material under reliable protection

Working with wood, craftsmen strive to preserve its texture. This is possible using a tool like varnish. Coatings, wood made on a different basis, so their properties as the drying period varies.
Wood, lacquered, longer retains its quality
Lucky for the tree of good that does not hide, but rather emphasize it. But this is typical only for transparent or very light compositions, colored give the tree shade. Varnishes are made of water, alcohol, polyester, acrylic, cellulosic, polyurethane, oil-based.

Some wood varnish to choose?

Varnishes for wood, water-based are odnokomnatnaya. This is the most dolgosrochnuyu compositions among all of these types of coatings for wood. They can be diluted with water, easy to apply, suitable for all types of work.

Varnishes based on polyurethane are inexpensive and dry quickly. They are both one - and two-component. Some of them require precoating of the surface. These compositions diluted with solvents, so they have quite a pungent smell. Mainly used in furniture manufacturing. Among the shortcomings of these tools of wood processing include the availability of harmful substances.

The nitro lacquer is made on the basis of cellulose. This is perhaps the most popular type of varnish, the reason for that – short drying time and low cost. But these compositions have significant disadvantages: low resistance to abrasion and UV radiation and possible delamination.
Acrylic varnishes are more expensive than their counterparts, but are often used in furniture manufacturing because of its excellent light fastness, durability, high-quality gloss. These compounds a very long time to dry, that does not prevent them to be the most popular among those who are passionate about decoupage.

Varnishes based on polyester are used quite rarely because of the complexity of application and high toxicity. They are sprayed in aerosol form, and require a special tool. These compounds are used in the manufacture of musical instruments, as they are able to create a fairly thick layer of the coating.

What a lucky tree suitable for outdoor use?

For external works use cold-resistant, light-resistant, moisture-resistant coating. Only such coatings can reliably protect the wood from rain, wind and sunlight. You cannot apply for wood which is on the street, the compositions forming the non-elastic film. These include the nitro lacquer. In addition, the varnish for exterior use should contain anti-bacterial additives that protect wood from insects and prevent rot.

For outdoor work you can use varnish on acrylic, oil, water-based. Most worthy among these coatings consider high strength yacht varnish. The most popular formulations for exterior grades of "Hello", "Aqua", "Flourishing", "Eurotex", "Bor".
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