Advice 1: How to make a space helmet

Older people remember the period when almost all children dreamed of becoming astronauts. The guys with the hobby was building models of space ships, did fancy dress in space suits with helmets. Today, interest in space themes in the younger generation has faded - why not try to revive it?
How to make a space helmet
Making a homemade space suit for a fancy dress astronaut start with preparing the basics. As such, use a balloon. When inflated it needs to be significantly more the child's head and, moreover, to have the form close to spherical.
Inflating the ball, start to apply the layers of papier-mache. The first layers adjacent to the ball, make from ordinary paper - it is thicker, and for later use of the newspaper. Stop when the thickness of the walls of the future hat will amount to a few millimeters.
Leave blank to dry for a few days. When it becomes completely dry, pierce the balloon with a needle directly through the layer of papier-mache, and it burst. Take a modeling knife and carefully so as not to crush the field, penetrate bottom a round hole for the head, and the front - face. Make sure that the helmet is easily put on and removed.
Now fabricate a safety glass, which is available to all of real space helmets. Cut it out of a plastic bottle and glue. But remember, a toy hat, in contrast to this, the tightness of the is contraindicated! Therefore, the perimeter of the glass, drill a lot of holes with a diameter of a few millimeters.
Now the finished product must be painted. These helmets of the astronauts silver. This is necessary to prevent them from sun heat. But to paint a toy helmet with silver paint from the spray can, because it's poisonous. It is better to use for this bright white gouache. Before you use the finished product for the play or play the astronauts, and let the paint dry completely. You can further decorate the helmet with markers or gouache to paint the prop screws to make labels and paste over with a soft cloth (not blocking the vent holes) to make it more comfortable to wear.
Arrange for the normal breathing of the child in the helmet.

Advice 2: How astronauts wash in space

The question of personal hygiene of astronauts in space is quite interesting. Earlier, in Soviet times, in order to wash your body, the astronaut had to spend about two hours. Now this procedure takes much less time. How do astronauts bathe in space?
How astronauts wash in space
The first flight into space carried out the world famous Yuri Gagarin. But the trip lasted an hour and a half. So no one even thought about the hygiene that can be used in space. After Yuri Gagarin cosmonauts often began to study intergalactic space, but still have a long journey was short. When space travel began to take six or more months, the designers and engineers of space stations are thinking about creating soul. Don't wash for six months is not the answer.

How bathed the astronauts in space during the Soviet era and perestroika

The first showers appeared on the space stations "Salyut-7" and "MIR". It was showers, the shape is similar with modern cabins, which are installed in the apartments. But washing them was really funny, in essence, resembled a kind of attraction. Cabin for washing the body and head had the form of a cylinder which was made of solid, translucent plastic. To go to the shower-cylinder, the astronaut had to wear goggles and mouth he a tube, which was fed air from outside. After the cockpit was closed, the top started to spray a mist of it, that which bathed the astronauts. But the peculiarity lay in the fact that at the bottom of a shower worked a powerful vacuum cleaner, which draws this water dust. It had also to air drops was headed that down, as without this cleaner they would have stuck to the astronaut because of the weightlessness process. But the cleaner could not cope at 100%, so the astronaut had to shake off clinging drops, like after bathing the dog. After this procedure, the soap was on the walls of a shower enclosure, then the air flow which comes from the cleaner, was coming down. This bath took an hour, and two more, as the procedure drops off from the body is repeated until then, until the soap solution is not completely disappeared from the body of the astronaut.

Like swimming in space in our days

In our days of showers on space stations do not, so the issue of personal hygiene is solved differently: the wet wipes. But wipes are not just an ordinary wet from the store and manufactured specially for astronauts. The liquid impregnated wipes don't contain alcohol, in order to comply with fire safety regulations. Moreover, wet wipes are produced without any smell, because even pleasant and gentle fragrance will soon become unpleasant for the astronaut, because they need to wash is not a day and two, and six months or more – as much as will last space mission. Head wash cosmonauts specially designed compound "Aelita", which does not create foam, while perfectly cleanses the scalp and hair.

Advice 3: Why the astronaut suit

From the point of view of biology space the environment is absolutely hostile to man. Suitable for human life conditions of the known planets while also not detected. To ensure the life and work of astronauts in outer space and on the surface of celestial bodies are designed spacesuit is a complex and knowledge-intensive clothing for explorers.
Heavy boots help to balance the suit

Types of space suits

Currently created and tested in real conditions, three types of space suits. This rescue suits, suits for spacewalks and spacesuits to work on the surface of celestial bodies. the Last type spacesuits were used for flights to the moon. The device suits depends on the conditions of their use and what kind of work to be performed by the astronauts in these conditions.

Rescue suit

The first was developed by the emergency suit. It is intended to protect the cosmonaut depressurization of the spacecraft, the change in the composition of the atmosphere and temperature inside manned compartments. Emergency space suits have detachable gloves, and sometimes flip-front helmet. These suits quickly put on and the most automated. In the fall spring pressure so the suit automatically sealed, the helmet is closed, the system of Autonomous life support.

Suit for operation in outer space

Working in open space, the astronaut must be protected from exposure to excessive light radiation. Consequently, the suit in this case has a coating that reflects light rays, and the helmet is installed protective filter. Suit for use in outer space does not need removable gloves and helmet, put it on all at once and completely. But demands on joint mobility, this suit is high, because outside of the ship, the astronaut performs a specific job. This problem is solved by using corrugated surfaces, hinges and sealed bearings that are located in bends of joints. Gloves of the space suits for the open spaces is very complex, they provide even maintaining the tactile sensitivity of the fingers. These suits are equipped and backpack life support system, and a radio to communicate, and even protivometeoritnoy and radiation protection. Hermetic shell of these suits are often double and has high strength.

Suit to work on the moon

The only celestial body on which you have already visited the man, is the Moon. Lunar suit generally resembles a space suit for outer space, but it has some differences. And the most important of them - the shoes. In addition, on the moon there is the gravitational force that not only determines weight parameters of the suit, but it requires a certain alignment, otherwise the astronaut will simply not be able to keep his balance. Shoes lunar space suit is quite heavy. The strength of this suit is also increased, which protects the astronaut from trouble in case of a fall.

The General structure of the suit

All space suits have an airtight shell and system to provide the astronaut with oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor. The insulation of the suit is provided by a layered shell, and heating or cooling it is usually produced in the form of tubes through which circulates a liquid coolant. In the helmet of a space suit is a communication device, as well as the system supply of drinking water and (if necessary) food. In the suit there is a system of sensors to monitor the physical condition of the astronaut. Thus, the suit is not only the "outer clothing" but are essentially small individual spacecraft, providing the support and work of man in space.
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