Advice 1: How to determine the quality of diesel fuel

In recent times many motorists are switching to diesel fuel, the quality of which depends the durability and reliability of the engine. Most of these people are faced with the problem of choosing this type of fuel, which, unfortunately, is often not the best quality.
How to determine the quality of diesel fuel
You will need
  • - a sample of high-quality diesel fuel;
  • - laboratory equipment.
Instruction
1
To check out the quality of purchased diesel fuel, you must use a special laboratories. In that case, if in the vicinity there are no such organizations use a relatively simple method of comparing the appearance. At a gas station buy the necessary diesel fuel and pour it in a glass container. Next to him place a vessel with a proven diesel fuel of excellent quality and compare them. Low fuel quality will have a darker color, and also may precipitate on the bottom of the vessel.
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In order to know the exact composition and quality of the acquired diesel fuel, you need to pass a formal examination with the use of the above-mentioned laboratory equipment. Take a sample of the purchased diesel fuel and head to the nearest laboratory. There your sample check on many parameters: determine the cetane number (a measure of Flammability must be at least 45); analyze the viscosity and water content; calculate the sulfur content.
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Also don't forget to learn in the laboratory the temperature characteristics of diesel fuel. Usually this type of fuel is assigned one of three values: summer (the ignition temperature is 62°C, pour point of -5°C); winter (ignition temperature — 40°C, pour point of -35°C); Arctic (ignition temperature — 35°C, pour point of -50°C). Be careful when using these types of fuel, as for profit, many suppliers can sell the "fuel" that does not match the natural conditions that may be detrimental to the engine.
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To protect yourself from using poor quality diesel fuel demand from unverified sellers at the gas station all the necessary documents confirming the quality of this type of petroleum product. Of course, this method does not give an absolute guarantee that the fuel meets all the standards, but it is a little protection may save your engine.

Advice 2: How to clean diesel fuel

Many are faced with the problem of diesel fuel purification from mechanical particles. Used during refueling of fuel tanks mesh filter is able to capture particles larger than 80 microns. Particles of smaller size can pass through the mesh filter of the fuel tank, thereby clogging fuel filters diesel.
How to clean diesel fuel
Instruction
1
One way of cleaning diesel fuel is filtered. It protects against solid particles of dust which penetrate into the fuel tank when it is opened. The presence of dust particles can cause malfunctions of the diesel engine, as they clog the holes and channels of the injector nozzle, whereby in the combustion chamber is supplied an insufficient amount of fuel and engine power is reduced. After cleaning, the filtration efficiency of fuel combustion increases, and therefore, the engine power will be higher, fuel is consumed more economically.
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The filter consists of the filter element and the housing. Filter element made of special paper, synthetic fiber or cellulose. Some filters are able to hold the hard particles and of the water contained in the fuel. During operation, ensure that the filter does not overflow with water, otherwise the water will block and filter bypass flow of untreated fuel. It is important to choose the right filter depending on the particle size, otherwise the filter will not perform their functions.
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One of the varieties of filtration – separation. This cleaning method is applicable to highly contaminated diesel fuel. Separators allow you to remove foreign matter from the fuel, even if their concentration is very high. When applying a separation method of separating water and solid particles in the centrifuge, then collecting on the bottom of the casing of the purifier, and filter through a special paper with special impregnation. Such equipment is expensive and is generally used in larger enterprises with a fuel consumption of more than 150 tons per month.
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For self cleaning of diesel fuel you can use special additives that prevent coking of the injectors, formation of deposits on pistons and combustion chamber walls, at the glow plugs. Active formula diesel additive, depending on its destination, allows to displace water trapped in the fueland also prevents the increase of cetane number and fuel thickening.

Advice 3: How to increase the power of the diesel engine

The undoubted advantages of diesel engines: high torque and efficiency. Cons: low power and resource. Therefore, engineers seek to increase the power of diesel...
How to increase the power of the diesel engine
Instruction
1
Increasing sitesteen compression directly affects the efficiency of fuel combustion. The higher the compression ratio, the smaller amount of fuel is reached, the same power. In diesel engines, typical values of compression ratios from 18:1 to 22:1, which explains their high efficiency compared to gasoline engines. Full realization of these benefits contributes to the lack of throttle plate on diesels. For example, the increasing importance of compression only on the unit gives a boost to the power of 2%.
However, increasing the compression ratio does not always increase power. If the ratio is near the limit of detonation for a given fuel, further increasing the compression ratio will degrade the capacity and reliability of the engine.
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Common RailДанная system is applied in the power systems of diesel engines since 1997. Common Rail – a method of fuel injection into the combustion chamber under high pressure regardless of the load or engine speed. Different from the previously used system injection pump that creates pressure at the moment of fuel injection into the combustion chamber and not inside the intake manifold. This allows you to optimize the fuel mixture and combustion parameters for each cylinder. The system gives a boost to power up to 30%. The specific value of the increase of power for each diesel engine with Common Rail depends on depend on the injection pressure. In the Common Rail system third generation of the injection pressure is about 2000 bar. Soon to be launched fourth generation Common Rail system with an injection pressure of about 2500 bar.
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Turbodata effective and common means of increasing capacity for both diesel and gasoline engine. The turbine delivers to the cylinders of the additional amount of air, which allows to increase the flow of fuel, and therefore – to increase power. Taking into account that the pressure of the exhaust gases of a diesel engine in the 1.5-2 times higher than that of diesel, the turbo works better on diesel engines: provides the boost with the lowest revs and has no specific failure after sharp pressing a pedal of an accelerator – turboyamy. The lack of throttle in a diesel engine eliminates the need for complex circuits to control the turbine. Installed in tandem with a turbocharger intercooler nedovesov air (intercooler) allows to further improve the filling of cylinders and to increase capacity 15-20%. Another advantage of turbocharging on diesel engine: it does not lose power when operated in high mountain areas.
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Chip tuningu this case, the power of the diesel is improved by the installation of the electronic corrector settings of injection timing, duration of injection (fuel mixture) and increase boost pressure. More modern chip-sets manufactured by advanced technologies allow to increase the power of a turbo engine by 25-35% and reduce fuel consumption by 10%.
Installation of these kits requires no special skills, any additional refinement, equipped with detailed installation instructions and is designed for self-installation by the owner of the car even with the lack of detailed knowledge about the device.
Note
If the method is not intended for use by yourself, discard it, or contact a specialized firm. Otherwise, objectives will not be achieved and the costs will go wasted.

Advice 4: Why is diesel fuel more expensive than gasoline

Diesel fuel, roughly speaking, is a derivative product upon receipt of the gasoline, therefore it is a priori should be cheaper than the latter. However, in today's reality the opposite is true. Experts identify a number of reasons for this phenomenal phenomenon.
Why is diesel fuel more expensive than gasoline
The price of oil products on the European market is determined on the basis of quotations on the stock exchanges. Often the quotations on the stock exchanges on diesel fuel are higher than quotes for gasoline AI-95. Therefore, companies that are members of the international market, forced to adhere to global trends.For the production of diesel fuel technology is used is much lower than for gasoline. Consequently, the price should be lower. But it is in the ideal case. In practice diesel fuel is used much more widely than gasoline. The efficiency of diesel engines is higher. That's why diesel fuel becomes more expensive at a minimum cost of bringing the maximum profit.Many attribute the high cost of diesel fuel in the country, the fact that the big manufacturers sell it abroad, particularly in China. There is a shortage of diesel fuel and gas stations are forced to look for manufacturers of diesel fuel in all regions of the country, including much remote. Then, the purchase price plus the cost of transporting diesel fuel to gas stations, plus the various overhead expenses – this leads to the fact that diesel fuel "from the column" the gas station suddenly becomes more expensive than gasoline AI-95.Affect the situation with diesel fuel ism and the European trends. In European countries, including the border with Russia, such as our Baltic neighbours, as well as in Poland and Bulgaria, the price of gas stations with diesel fuel higher than gasoline.Currently, refineries tend to produce diesel fuelmeeting European quality standards, environmental standards Euro-4 and Euro-5, which require ultra-low sulfur content and it is also not cheaper.The rise in the cost of diesel fuel affects the climate. In very cold winters diesel fuel is becoming more popular in Europe, so on the Russian market, especially in retail, there is a shortage of winter diesel fuel, which leads to an increase in prices. Reason for the increased cost of diesel fuel may also be rising oil prices, moreover in 2011 there was an increase in excise taxes on petroleum products.

Advice 5: How to reduce diesel fuel consumption

During long-term operation of the diesel engine consumption of fuel may increase significantly. This is due primarily to the wear of certain parts of the unit and changing the properties of lubricants. Following some recommendations, you can extend the validity of a diesel engine and to reduce consumption of fuel.
How to reduce diesel fuel consumption
Instruction
1
Use to reduce consumptionand fuel optimal driving style of the car. The movement should be quiet, and the engine speed it is desirable to keep within the 1600-2000 rpm. Significant consumption of fuel occurs when the car switches to a higher gear at high revs. So try not to increase speed too much in order not to increase the burden on the units.
2
Inspect the air filter of the diesel engine. To do this, disconnect it and visually check for clearance. If the filter does not transmit light, it must be replaced. Replace the filter with a new one and periodically check its status. The new filter allows the engine to run at lower RPMs and significantly reduce the consumption of diesel fuel.
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Use engine oil with low viscosity. Choose high-quality materials trusted and recognized manufacturers. This measure also extends the service life of a diesel engine and reduces the consumption ofa fuel by a few percent. Follow the manufacturer's set the replacement time of oil.
4
Check with those in the vehicle's technical documentation standards for tyre pressure and increase the recommended settings on 0.2 atmosphere. This will reduce the drag of a car rolling and, accordingly, the consumption of diesel fuel. Use this method carefully, because overinflated tires make the vehicle more rigid and can shorten the life of the suspension.
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Stay tuned to the turbine, which is equipped with the engine didn't pump too cylinders because of the active pumping leads to increased consumptionand fuel. If the operating rules allow, disable the turbine. Note, however, that traction motor is reduced significantly. Select what is important to you – pull or saving fuel.

Advice 6: Where to complain of water quality

The quality of tap water in big cities is not always high. But if it happens some strange situation, from the tap may leak a rusty, dirty or smelling of diesel fuel liquid. What to do in such case?
Where to complain of water quality
Instruction
1
First of all you need to know who is the supplier of water. In Moscow, for example, hot water supplies, OAO "MOEK" and is responsible for the cold district water utility.
2
Finding that water quality has deteriorated, you must report this to the emergency service TSZH, ZHSK or DEATH. And this can be done both in writing and orally. You need to call full name, address of the premises where a problem has been detected and to indicate the kind of problem. The Manager must also give their name and number assigned to the incoming message and time the message was logged. If you can't immediately tell what's wrong with the water, be sure the inspection date.
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You can order a water analysis of SES. This procedure is free. If the water is unfit for drinking, the charges for this service removed from the accounts of utilities. However, as practice shows, SES running tests for quite some time, this process may be delayed. In this case we need to contact the emergency dispatch service of DEATH, or ZHSK, TSZH and to insist on checking the condition of the pipes in the house. Unfortunately, this process also takes a lot of time.
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Users or owners can directly contact the water supplier if known. The address and telephone number of any management company easy to find online.
5
If within two weeks no action to eliminate the problem has not been undertaken, you can contact a local regular edition. The noise in the press quite often accelerates the process of solving the problem.
Note
Water pipes according to the norms need to be replaced every ten to fifteen years. Unfortunately, this usually occurs much less frequently.
Useful advice
Just in case you can buy a filter glass or put a flow model. It will save your loved ones from possible troubles related to water quality.

Advice 7: Rocket fuel is the types and composition

Propellant is the chemical mixture that is burned to produce thrust in rockets and consists of a fuel and oxidizer. Fuel is a substance that burns in combination with oxygen and releases gas to bring the aircraft in motion. The oxidizing agent is a reagent that allows the oxygen to react with fuel. Rocket fuel is classified in accordance with its aggregate state - liquid, solid or hybrid.
Rocket

Liquid rocket fuel



In rocket engines using liquid fuel fuel and oxidant are stored in separate tanks. They are served through a system of pipes, valves, and turbopumps to a combustion chamber where it is combined and burned to produce thrust. Liquid rocket engines are more complex than their analogues on solid fuels. However, they have several advantages. With the help of regulating the flow of reactants into the combustion chamber of the engine can be throttled, stopped, or restarted.

Liquid fuels used in the rocket industry can be divided into three types: hydrocarbons (petroleum-based), cryogenic and samovosproizvoditsja.

Based fuel oil is a refined oil and is composed of a mixture of complex hydrocarbons. An example of such a propellant is a type of kerosene is of high purity. It is usually used in combination with liquid oxygen as oxidizer.

Cryogenic rocket fuel in most cases is a liquid hydrogen mixed with liquid oxygen. Because of the low temperatures this fuel is difficult to store for a long time. Despite this drawback, the liquid propellant has an advantage: combustion releases massive amounts of energy.

Samovosproizvoditsja rocket fuel is a two-component mixture that ignites upon contact with air. Quick start of the engines built on this type of fuel makes it ideal for maneuvering spacecraft. However, such fuel is very flammable so when working with it requires special security measures.

Solid rocket fuel



Engine design for solid rocket fuel is pretty simple. It consists of a steel casing filled with a mixture of solid compounds (fuel and oxidizer). These components are burning with great velocity, leaving the nozzle and creating thrust. Ignition of solid rocket fuel is in the center of the tank, and then the process moves to the sides of the hull. Form of the Central channel determines the rate and nature of combustion, thereby providing a method of traction control. Unlike liquid propellant engines, solid motor cannot be stopped after starting. After the start of the process, components will burn until the fuel runs out.

There are two types of solid fuels: homogeneous and composite. Both types are very stable at normal temperatures and is easily stored.

The difference between homogeneous and composite fuels is that the first type is a substance of the same type – this is often nitrocellulose. Composite fuel composed of heterogeneous powders based on mineral salts.

Hybrid rocket fuel



Rocket engines, working on this type of fuel, constitute an intermediate group between solid and liquid powertrains. In this type of engine one substance, solid, while the other in a liquid state. The oxidizing agent typically is a liquid. The main advantage of such engines is that they have a high efficiency. Combustion of the fuel, you can stop or even restart the motor again.
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