Advice 1: How to learn to use a compass

Modern navigation devices are becoming more available. However, the ordinary compass is still popular, and he has a lot of advantages. The most important thing is that it works without batteries. Accordingly, there is a certain guarantee that the appliance will operate all the time while you are in the field. To learn to walk in azimuth, it is sufficient to understand how it works the compass.
How to learn to use a compass
You will need
  • - compass;
  • - map of the area;
  • notebook;
  • pencil.
Learn how to determine the compass North. Typically, this device has a long arrow with two edges. One end of it points North, the other South. The one that North always marked. It can be blue - then South painted red. There may be other designations.
Consider limb. It stands for side light. North Russian is written With a "j" or Latin "N". This mark is always there. On the opposite side, respectively, will be "s" or "S". If you stand facing North, left is West and right is East. They can also be marked on the compass corresponding Russian letters or Latin "W" (West) or "E" (East).
Consider carefully the limb. It is divided into 360°. This is necessary in order to determine the angle between the North direction and the fact that you're going. Compasses can be of different designs. Some models have an extra arrow that allows you to lock the angle. Other modifications have compass - a device that resembles an optical sight, allowing a better focus on the object. But all magnetic compasses work on the same principle.
Give the compass steady horizontal position. Wait until the arrow rest. It will happen fairly quickly. Gently rotate the instrument to the direction of the arrow coincides with the letter "s" on the limb. Select the direction in which you need to go, and a landmark. It should be a visible fixed object - any structure, a kind of tree. Aim at the object and notice the angle between the directions. If you have a map, Orient it the same way as a compass, and mark the path of the object, denoting the angle. In the absence of the card, record the direction in Notepad. You are unlikely to get to the desired object in a straight line, since the path can meet, buildings, streams, or ravines that have to be circumvented. When they reached the desired point, select the next landmark, and again determine the angle between the directions to him and to the North. To return you the records or on the map.
A magnetic compass cannot be used near power lines or large clusters of metal - for example, on the railroad tracks.

The compass should be periodically verified. Bring to lying horizontally the compass for a moment, the needle. If the arrow will react - so it's all right. In order to check polarity, put a compass next to the attorney. The direction of the arrows must be the same.

Advice 2 : How to learn to manipulate the cards

Magic tricks with cards is very common. For display does not require special equipment and special facilities – enough to have the deck and be able to effectively manipulate it. And what is especially nice – all the tricks you can learn.
How to learn to manipulate the cards
You will need
  • - a deck of cards;
  • chips or round cracker;
  • - musical instrument (if possible).
Develop fingers and muscles of hands. No wonder there is a saying "Sleight of hand and no fraud". To learn how to work with maps you need to constantly train. Fingers should be flexible – this will allow you to demonstrate complex tricks that are based on skillful manipulation of cards. It is important to develop both hands – right or left.
A good way to train stretching fingers to learn to play a musical instrument, e.g. guitar. Another option is to buy a set of poker chips and learn to cut. Not necessary to buy a suitcase, you can limit the three stacks (60 chips). If you have long nails, pre-cut them – they will interfere.
Cutting (cutting chips) is done as follows. Take in hand one stack (20 pieces), slightly lift from the table, the index finger is put at level 5 (or 4) chips, not peeping. Put the stack on the surface and slide up the rest of the chips should have two columns: one of 5 chips, the second of the 15. Not letting go of the hand stack, the index finger slide on the upper chip of the first column and will continue to move the finger at themselves, automatically removing the next batch of chips. Instead of chips you can use a cracker, but in this case, the cutting will not happen as smoothly.
Get a deck of plastic cards of good quality. It is better to choose such that are used in gambling establishments – with their help, you can deliver even the most complex tricks. Allocate more time to working with the deck – learn how to shuffle it in several ways: the weight on the table.
Almost all card tricks are based on the account and a good memory to develop which must be constantly. And it can be done, for example, in the store, and every time in mind summarize the value of purchases to the checkout you already know the exact value. It is important not to round off – this will allow you to develop observation skills which will be useful later in a demonstration of tricks and working with the audience.

Advice 3 : How to use a compass

A compass is a device with which you can determine directions, memorize your route and then go to the right place. It is very useful, but only if you know how to use it. To master the handling of this device is easy, but for training just in case make one more walk in a well-known area.
How to use a compass

Compass device

Compass allows you to determine how you are positioned relative to the cardinal directions: North, South, East and West. As a rule, a compass with two arrows, and North is marked in a special way. It can be blue, be shorter or have the shape of an arrow. It happens that in the compass of just one arrow, then it always indicates the North direction.

Usually the compass has a small lever, which is locking, you prevent the movement of the arrow. Lock the compass when not in use.

To use a compass is possible only if it is strictly horizontal: the arrow should not touch the glass or the base of the device. The deviation at any angle affect the accuracy of the compass, as the physical forces acting on the arrow no longer be balanced. Down the device and any metal objects, the proximity of railway tracks or the presence of nearby power lines. To use any of the compasses that are embedded in various metal objects: watches, the handle of the knife and so on.

Checking the compass

Every compass from time to time need to check. With this, you should start your hike. Never forget to check your compass before you hike, it is very important, otherwise you risk to seriously get lost.

Will razmazite device horizontally. When the pointer stop moving, bring it to a metal object. As soon as she starts to change dramatically remove the metal. If the arrow is returned to its original position, all right. Just in case, bring the object to the compass a few more times with other parties.

Use the compass

Define the reference point to which you want to return. It is desirable that it was an extended object, such as a road, river or railway track. The object should be extended, as any compass has an accuracy of 1-3 degrees.

Select a landmark, then get away from it at right angles. Turn around to face him. Unlock the compass and position it horizontally. Now wait for the arrow rest, turn the unit so that it coincided with the North (the sign N – north, not S – south, sometimes Russian-speaking people get that mixed up).

Now mentally draw a line in the desired direction. You can use a pen or a stick for convenience. Remember, better write down the degrees from zero (point North), in the clockwise direction. This is the point to which you want to back – azimuth. The figure on the opposite side – direction of travel. Remember you need him, too.

Each time, changing the direction notice guideline and remember the coordinates of the direction and azimuth. Try to choose large targets.

To go back, place the compass horizontally to a line from the center to the azimuth was directed straight ahead. Now turn on its axis until the pointer is aligned with the North. As soon as it happened and the arrow has calmed down, go straight. Reaching the landmark change of direction, repeat the same thing again, taking a bearing from that point.

Advice 4 : Who decided that the compass should be red and blue

The compass is used not only by cartographers and surveyors. This device is indispensable for travelers, and for participants of competitions on sports orientation. Almost everyone, at least once kept in the hands of the magnetic compass, wonders why his hands are red and blue coloring and who came up with that color scheme?
The usual magnetic compass
The main objective of the compass is indicating the orientation of the cardinal directions: North and South. The red needle of a compass interacting with the earth's magnetic field always points North, blue or black — on the contrary. In addition, compass has a special scale that can be used to determine the azimuth and the angle of deviation from natural reference point. Interesting question — the color of the arrow of the compass and its origin.

The origin of the compass

The first compass was built almost two and a half thousand years ago in China and had the appearance of a spoon, carved from magnetite and carefully polished. It is set on a perfectly smooth Board. The handle of the spoon pointed to the South direction, so with the Chinese the first name of compass translates as "in charge of the South."

Followers of Chinese scientists continued to construct their models of magnetic compasses in the construction of which always had something in common: needle usually was a needle of tempered iron. In ancient China, the birthplace of the steel industry, people knew that after heating and rapid cooling the metal acquires magnetic properties.

The first compasses had a low accuracy: the inaccuracy was due to the high strength of the friction force is pointing to the part on the base. This issue was generally resolved in two ways. On the one hand, the compass was placed in a vessel with water and fastened it to the center of the float, to enable it to rotate freely. On the other hand, both ends of the arrow were to be perfectly balanced, and the best way to achieve this is to make them exactly the same size and weight.

Traditions of ancient peoples

To easily distinguish the direction that the compass point, his arrows were easier to paint in different colours to make different shapes. On the question of why the compass needle is painted in red and blue you can find the answer in the annual calendar of the ancient Assyrians. Traditionally, the North and the South, these peoples were called blue and red lands, respectively. Therefore, blue and red colors that have sufficient contrast, was used as the main reference for the ancient compass.

With the opening of the first permanent magnet of the names of poles and color scheme for their designations were borrowed from the compass. The South pole of the magnet is painted red and the North blue. It should be noted that like poles repel each other, but because the compass, the needle of which was made of permanent magnet having a traditional coloring book, ceased to point North with its blue side. Thus, the color scheme of the device was completely the opposite.

The compass needle now

Compasses differ in main purpose, and the color of the arrows. For example, bench and laboratory compasses used in secondary schools, point to the North by the blue arrow. At the same time, expensive navigation equipment has a red pointer the North. It became very popular to do curly arrows pointing only in the North landmark. In any case, before you trust strangers compass navigation route, it must first check and read the instructions.

Advice 5 : How to learn wood carving

Woodcarving is a craft that developed among all peoples of the world, because wood is a material that gives warmth and comfort. But not all trained in this useful craft.
Thousands of people around the world are carving. In order to master this craft, start with a simple manipulation. Who wants to learn wood carving you will need two knives. One of them has to be a pen and well-honed. And the other a knife - jamb. By the way a knife-jamb, you can even make yourself.

Ideal for carving will become a balcony, as there you will not disturb others. Now you need to choose the material. For beginners a great option would be alder, aspen or lime. These wood species are easily cut not only along but also across. This leaves a smooth cut.

In the carving provides a lot of different styles. But for those who are just learning this skill, will approach a triangular-notched thread. It is also called geometric. The technique of cutting the elements of a geometrical carving includes two main stages - stabbing and cutting.

To clip the triangle, apply a dot in its Central part and insert the tip of a knife-jamb. Point the heel of the knife to the top of the triangle and push down on the handle so that the spout has entered the wood a few millimeters. From the midpoint make getting to the other vertices of the triangle. Thus it is necessary to rotate the Board, not the knife. After impaling proceed to the trimming.

Holding the joint at a 45-degree angle to the surface of the Board, put it to the top of the triangle and guide the tip along the sides of the triangle. The nose will gradually deepen. If pruning is done accurately and correctly, from the Board to separate the compact triangular pyramid. Then rotate the Board one hundred and twenty degrees and do the next cut. Remove the next piece. Keep doing the cutting in the same spirit, and gradually have selected all of the items.

With this obtained knowledge it is possible to begin to engage in more complex carvings. It is recommended that at the initial stage not to use expensive professional tool. Tools you will accumulate gradually, with the growth of his skill. Of course, ideally it would be nice to watch a professional Woodcarver to take into account some of the nuances of this work. As study material, you can use Internet resources. You will also need a lot of patience to do the carving.
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