You will need
- - compass;
- - map of the area;
- - transparent ruler
Read the compass device. He usually has a circular scale, divided into 120 divisions, each of which represents a step of 3 degrees. The limbs of some compasses are marked angular degrees from 0 to 359 and refer to the main compass points pointing to the North (N), South (S), West (W) and East (E). In the center of the compass is the arrow always oriented in the direction of "North-South".
When purchasing a compass, check the magnetization of the arrow. To do this, bring the arrow to a massive iron object. Make sure that the needle in his direction. Want to buy compass, the interior of which is filled with fluid, which prevents oscillations. So you can use the device even on the go.
Place the compass on a flat horizontal surface. Turn off the brake, the locking position of the arrow. Wait until the arrow will cease to oscillate and will settle down.
Carefully rotate the compass to align the North end of the arrow with the letter N on the scale of the instrument. You have just oriented the compass to the horizon. Make no mistake in determining the North and South. Part of the needle that points North, can be blue or different in form from the "South" end. Sometimes the "North" part of the needle is of a luminous point. To be sure, read the instructions for the device.
Carry out so-called binding to the terrain. Select the reference, i.e. the object to which you return after the completion of the movement on the ground. Select line feature: road clearing, power line, river, and so on. This will allow you not to miss when you return to the starting point.
Select the direction of movement from the starting point. Make a note of the angular value corresponding to that direction by looking at the compass. For example, you decided that going from a point standing on the North-East. This means that you will have back in the opposite direction, i.e. in the South-West.
If the anticipated path of movement has the character of a broken line, count while walking the number of pairs of steps, and in places turns again check with the compass by determining a new course in degrees. Try to allocate the route visible landmarks: towers, poles, power lines, tall trees, etc.
If you have a map of the area, mark your route in the direction of motion by placing control points. This will allow the return to go astray and just to get to the starting point.