Advice 1: How to formulate a research problem

Methodological apparatus of any of the study includes the nomination and the formulation of its problem. And in the course of a student's work, and in final qualifying, and in the analytical study, master, and doctoral thesis of a scientist, the problem of the study was presented as a justification and necessity of the research as a whole.
How to formulate a research problem
You will need
  • Research, which has already formulated a topic that requires the identification and designation of issues; knowledge of methodological bases of theoretical or practical research.
Instruction
1
The problem of the study – is the logical conclusion of the description of the relevance of the topic of research, where the author indicates that his theme is, or could be implemented without solving the problem. The problem always appears at the junction of old and new knowledge: when the knowledge is already obsolete, and the new has not yet appeared. Or the problem may already be solved in science, but not implemented in practice.
2
The correct formulation of a problem determines the strategy of research: how scientific knowledge can be implemented in practice, or how can it be generated new knowledge as a result of the study. To formulate the problem, means to separate the important from the unimportant, to find out what is already known and what is still unknown about the subject of the study.
3
Defining the problem research, the author answers the question: "What should be studied that has not previously been studied." The problem is an important and complex issue.To justify the problem, you must give arguments in favor of the reality of the raised problems; to find value and meaningful connection with other problems.
4
To assess the problem, you should identify all the conditions necessary for its solution, including methods, tools, techniques; to find among already solved problems similar solved, which will greatly narrow the scope of the study.
5
Build issues should narrow the field of study of the subject of the study in accordance with the needs of the research and capabilities of the researcher. If the researcher fails to show, where passes border between knowledge and ignorance, known and unknown on the subject of the study, the problem of the study is determined easily and quickly.
Note
The problem in a methodological unit for the study can be placed after the study relevance of the topic, and may be preceded by relevance. Relevance can be defined as the study of research problems. In this case, the content relevance is the answer to the question: "Why now want to study the problem?".
Useful advice
The more complex and relevant research, the more complicated the form the problem is formulated.
In the course work of the student the research problem can be formulated in the form of a question.
In the research of the dissertation the research problem can be formulated in the form of a withdrawal from controversy, theoretical or practical tasks, problem situations.

Advice 2 : How to write analysis of the article

Analysis of the article involves an assessment of descriptiveness, meaningfulness, and semantic integrity of the article. This analysis allows to reveal level of professionalism of an author, evaluate the style and manner of narration.
How to write analysis of the article
You will need
  • - article for analysis;
  • supplies.
Instruction
1
To write a qualitative analysis of the articles refer to is not subjective opinion, and defined criteria. Read the article and try to evaluate it on the basis of the extent to which the content header, content, logic of presentation, disclosure of the topic. Consider also the language of the article, its stylistic characteristics. The article must represent a unity of meaning.
2
After reading the article several times, proceed with the analysis. In the beginning, specify all the output articles, and proceed to the first item of the plan "under the header content of the article". In modern journalism, the cases when the "screaming" headlines only attract attention and do not correspond to the subject. Therefore, this paragraph should be reflected in your analysis.
3
Then go to assess the degree of informativeness of the article. Pay special attention to the presence of the facts, surveys, expert opinions, accurate data. All these components significantly increase the level of informativeness and allow in the future to refer to this article.
4
Logic of presentation is no less important in the evaluation of the article. If the article contains two or three microtomy, and the author erratically jumps from one to another, not finish the argument, it is a serious minus. Each considered the issue needs to be consistently presented, and in the end of the story should be summed up the corresponding results.
5
An article describing the above mentioned signs, you should say, fully disclosed to the affected subject. This item can cause difficulty in the analysis of the articles, where the author aims to encourage readers to reflect and purposely leave the question rhetorical. This type of articles did not disclose the topic in full, and its vagueness encourages further interest readers. If you are working with such article, be sure to include it in the analysis.
Useful advice
If you want to make your analysis of the article really creative and noteworthy, analyze the artistic features of the language of the article. Emphasize used means of expression (epithets, metaphors, comparisons, etc.).

Advice 3 : How to make analysis of the article

Of the article analyze in order to identify their information content, semantic integrity and consistency. On the basis of such analysis we can conclude about the professionalism of the individual author or the publication in General.
How to make analysis of the article
You will need
  • - article for analysis.
Instruction
1
Read the article several times and try to assess its compliance with the stated title. You will also enjoy such quality articles as the level of informativeness and semantic integrity. Analyze how profoundly revealed the topic of the article, how well maintained the logical presentation of facts. In their work, try to be objective, don't go by your personal opinion.
2
Rate the quality of the language in which is written the analyzed article. Determine how the language meets the stated style, such as scientific, technical, or journalistic. Note such disadvantages as the over-saturation of popular scientific text difficult terms or, on the contrary, the presence of coarse language.
3
Proceed to the presentation of your analysis in written form. Start with the instructions of the output article. In the first paragraph of article present a consistent header content. For modern presses tend to attract the attention of the screaming headlines that do not always reflect the contents of the publications.
4
Rate the level of informativeness of the article. Indicate on the presence or absence in the analyzed material objective facts, expert evaluations, statistical data from reliable sources.
5
Reflect in a separate paragraph analysis of its assessment of the consistency of presentation of information in the article. Well, if the article clearly identifiable milestones such logic, as a brief introduction, detailed and consistent presentation of the problem, and in the end summing up the relevant outcome.
6
Pay attention to the language of the article in a separate paragraph. Specify stylistic mistakes, if any in the text. Mark used by the author of the expressive means of language: comparisons, epithets, metaphors etc.
7
Summarize the article in a single paragraph. Here you have to answer the question, how deep is revealed of the author's stated theme.

Advice 4 : How to formulate a research problem

Methodological apparatus of any of the study includes the nomination and the formulation of its problem. And in the course of a student's work, and in final qualifying, and in the analytical study, master, and doctoral thesis of a scientist, the problem of the study was presented as a justification and necessity of the research as a whole.
How to formulate a research problem
You will need
  • Research, which has already formulated a topic that requires the identification and designation of issues; knowledge of methodological bases of theoretical or practical research.
Instruction
1
The problem of the study – is the logical conclusion of the description of the relevance of the topic of research, where the author indicates that his theme is, or could be implemented without solving the problem. The problem always appears at the junction of old and new knowledge: when the knowledge is already obsolete, and the new has not yet appeared. Or the problem may already be solved in science, but not implemented in practice.
2
The correct formulation of a problem determines the strategy of research: how scientific knowledge can be implemented in practice, or how can it be generated new knowledge as a result of the study. To formulate the problem, means to separate the important from the unimportant, to find out what is already known and what is still unknown about the subject of the study.
3
Defining the problem research, the author answers the question: "What should be studied that has not previously been studied." The problem is an important and complex issue.To justify the problem, you must give arguments in favor of the reality of the raised problems; to find value and meaningful connection with other problems.
4
To assess the problem, you should identify all the conditions necessary for its solution, including methods, tools, techniques; to find among already solved problems similar solved, which will greatly narrow the scope of the study.
5
Build issues should narrow the field of study of the subject of the study in accordance with the needs of the research and capabilities of the researcher. If the researcher fails to show, where passes border between knowledge and ignorance, known and unknown on the subject of the study, the problem of the study is determined easily and quickly.
Note
The problem in a methodological unit for the study can be placed after the study relevance of the topic, and may be preceded by relevance. Relevance can be defined as the study of research problems. In this case, the content relevance is the answer to the question: "Why now want to study the problem?".
Useful advice
The more complex and relevant research, the more complicated the form the problem is formulated.
In the course work of the student the research problem can be formulated in the form of a question.
In the research of the dissertation the research problem can be formulated in the form of a withdrawal from controversy, theoretical or practical tasks, problem situations.
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