Advice 1: How to write the abstract to the abstract

In the annotations to the abstract reveals the relevance and novelty of the work, indicate its subject and main points. This amount of information necessary to present as briefly as possible, within the same page.
How to write the abstract to the abstract
Instruction
1
On the first row of the worksheet, enter the word "abstract" – put up 16 PT font Times New Roman and highlight the word in bold.
2
Double-indentation, leaving a blank line. In the first sentence annotations use the common template. Write that essay under such a name (name given in full, in quotation marks) of the author (your name and surname in genitive) about a particular area of science. Further fleshing out, what was the subject of your research. Specify what sources you have been working. It is enough to specify the type studied literature, not to mention the titles and authors of books. Specify the key tasks that you performed as a result of studying this literature.
3
In the next paragraph will elaborate on the empirical and theoretical material studied in the preparation of the abstract. Discuss the main concepts discussed, what are their positive and negative sides. Summarize the conclusions you came to as a result of the work.
4
Specify the practical significance of the abstract. Write, in what areas and purposes you can use the information.
5
The main text of the abstract dial a Times New Roman font, size 14, sesquialteral interval. Text alignment – by width.
6
The sheet with the annotation insert folder essay between the content and the first page of the first Chapter of the work.
Useful advice
Despite the fact that the annotation to the abstract prepared according to the template, you should be able to identify the characteristics of work that distinguish it and make interesting to a certain circle of readers.

The style of presentation appropriate to the situation, but you need to be able not to overload the text with complex terms volume and run-on sentences.

Advice 2: How to make annotation

Abstract is a brief content of an artistic work or scientific work. It is necessary in order to attract the customer's attention, or to give potential readers an idea about the problems, which this or that work. Formalized annotations in accordance with state standards. It often gives information that is not present in the bibliographic description. The abstract should be very short, from one paragraph to the artwork to the page for scientific work.
How to make annotation
You will need
  • - work;
  • - a sheet of paper;
  • - handle;
  • - a computer with a text editor.
Instruction
1
Read the job. Identify its affiliation to art or other literature. If you can see the artwork, the abstract should contain brief information about the author. Briefly write in what era he worked in what country, what language and what other works were written.
2
Write, what genre is this work. Determine the focus and theme. You can also specify, what the reader is addressed to the book. This is especially important for children's books and literature.
3
Review of the bibliographic description. If this abstract artwork, sketched its contents. The annotation preferred to be a method of elimination. So to begin, write about the book just as you would write a school essay.
4
Description will likely get more than you need. Abstract should not exceed 500 characters. Therefore, remove from it all unnecessary. There should not be the name of the author, Illustrator, editor, publisher and works. In some cases, the valid name of the author. For example, if a book composed of works by different writers or poets. In all other cases it is indicated in the bibliographic description. Get titles of sections and chapters. This is a potential reader will find in the table of contents.
5
Get the known facts. The abstract should not be expressions like "great Russian scientist" or "a famous author of detective novels". Remove large quotes. If possible, do without citation.
6
In the annotations to technical and scientific books avoid highly specialized vocabulary. Even the reader who has never encountered a problem, which is devoted to work, needs to understand what is said in the work. Briefly define what this work is. Write about the field of science or production, which can be used book.
7
Specify the difference of this book from others on the same subject. What is the novelty of the author's intention? How important to a particular industry questions are revealed? Did this author's other works on the same subject?
8
Specify what the purpose of this work. Tell us about the readership for which it is intended. It is also necessary to draw the attention of potential readers on the genre and type of publication. The latter is determined by the state standard. If the work was published before, provide the previous name and the availability of fixes and additions. It may be reprinted.
9
In the annotation to the scientific work you can cite information about the author. But this should be done only in the case when the author has the appropriate academic degree, is a recognized authority in this field. Abstract in scientific and technical books, and artwork, printed with red lines as continuous text.
10
The abstract is a required component of any scientific work, be it school essay or dissertation. However, in this case it is somewhat different from annotations in the book. For example a larger volume — up to 1500 characters. There are two languages — Russian and other European. Most often, it is English.
11
In these annotations, you must specify the foremost objective. Most often, the target definition is an augmented or extended title of the work itself. In this highly technical vocabulary should be enough.
12
Define the object and subject of research. The same object can be the subject of research for representatives of different Sciences. The object is that which surrounds the researcher. The subject identifies, from the point of view which branch of knowledge the scientist looks at the object. For example, the object may be the environment, but for the doctor, ecologist, or geographer, it will be different the subject of the study.
13
This abstract must be prepared according to specific requirements. As a rule, it is placed on the last two pages of the work, after the bibliography. It should also include an educational institution or scientific organization, author name, year, and year of writing.

Advice 3: How to write a goal essay

The ability to write the essay – a valuable acquisition to the student, necessary to further work on coursework, coursework and even dissertation. Any scientific work is peer-reviewed part (theoretical material), and as a theoretical statement depends primarily on the objectives set in the study.
How to write a goal essay
You will need
  • - research topic;
  • literature on the topic;
  • - determining the relevance of the work.
Instruction
1
Determine first of all what type of essay you will write: descriptive or analytical. In descriptive the form of essay , the aim may be to analysis in the systematic review of the literature on the research topic, briefly stated, the essence of the work. Using the analytical form of the abstract goal is to conduct research on several literary sources, in developing its point of view and its justification based on the confirmation of scientific sources. To begin the objective, can the common clichés: to learn, to explore, to analyze, define, etc.
2
Rate your experience of writing essays. If the most simple forms you've had to write in school, select a more challenging goal, which will help you to reach a higher level of scientific research. This goal will be to develop recommendations for someone in search of criteria for assessing something.
3
Break the target into smaller components: sub-goal or task. For abstract enough that they were no more than 3. Objectives help to specify the course of your quest in achieving the goal. Each task can be reflected in a separate paragraph of the abstract.
4
Examine the list of literature necessary for writing the essay. Verify the presence of these works in the library or on the Internet. Only with the full volume of information sources goal can be realized. Check already written goal on her reality and achievability.
5
Indicate in the conclusion of the essay, how you managed to achieve the goal. If for some reason failed to thoroughly examine all the approaches, the conditions or methods of something that was planned, specify the reason. Make a forecast of actions that will help to fully achieve the goal. Perhaps that goal was set more global than the abstract, and its solution is possible only with a deeper study of the problems when writing a term paper.
Note
The purpose of the work always associated with the relevance of the work, so its precise formulation largely depends on how were able to determine the significance, importance of the problem being studied.
Useful advice
For writing a paper his goal is to always be before my eyes. Each section of the essay solves some part of the target. The synthesis of these decisions and indicate the completeness of your research.
Is the advice useful?
Search