Advice 1: What gender

Despite their apparent similarity, the notion of "gender" and "gender" are different. Biological sex, male or female, is an innate quality of the individual. Gender is acquired in the course of life is influenced by certain factors.
What gender

The difference between the concepts of gender and sex

Up to a certain time, it was believed that gender is immutable and not dependent on the will of the individual. However, the presence of certain sexual organs of a newborn child does not mean that it definitely applies to boys or girls. For example, when examining athletes, along with obvious female characteristics of the body, whereas chromosome set, as sometimes with the female sexual organs adjoin the male hormones. This gives athletes the benefits of competition.
Currently, with the help of modern medicine gender can be changed.

Gender, unlike sex, is a social, public, acquired in the result of education. People has a great influence of the cultural unconscious of the environment. Since gender is socially constructed, it undergoes changes simultaneously with the development of society and culture. For example, in the 19th century it was believed that man sure wears short hair and pants, and a woman long hair and dress. Currently, these things are not considered a symptom of gender.

The meaning of the concept "gender stereotype"

Gender ascribed to women and men, entrenched in mass consciousness. In an undeveloped society it puts pressure on individuals, imposing certain forms of social behavior. For example, it is believed that man is the "breadwinner", it must earn more than his wife. It is also believed that a man should be aggressive, assertive, to engage in "masculine" professions to make a career at work, enjoy fishing, sports. The woman should be emotional and soft, compliant and flexible. She "prescribed" to marry, to have children, to engage in "female" professions, most of the time she must devote to the family.
In different societies, gender stereotypes may vary. For example, in Spain the ability to cook is a sign of macho, whereas the Slavs - a purely female occupation.

These stereotypes give rise to some gender issues. That is, the husband, on maternity leave to care for a newborn, wife and nursing a family man who enjoys embroidery, a woman making a career instead of marriage - they suffer social condemnation for inappropriate sex behavior. Thus, gender is a social stereotype which leads to discrimination based on sex, as leadership roles are often reserved to men. Many developed countries there is a special gender policy: the government is trying to hear concerns of its citizens and to eliminate disparities by gender. For these purposes, created a code of laws, leading to the formation of a society equal for all people.

Advice 2: What is a gender policy

The word "gender" literally means "sex". However, the semantic content of these two terms is different. This is particularly evident in the concept of "gender policy".
Women in professional sport - the achievement of the struggle against sexual discrimination
Both concepts – gender and gender – characterize the separation of people into men and women. But the term "sex" refers to biological separation, and "gender" – the social.

The distinction between sex and gender

Sex is a biological characteristic of a person. It can be defined already in the newborn on the primary sex characteristics, i.e., on the anatomy of the external genitalia.

From this perspective, the gender of the person in no way depends on the culture to which it belongs. No impact on gender and the environment in which the child is to grow up.

Social gender is called gender – human behavior associated with its social role as men or women. This is determined by a whole system of ideas about how should behave a person of a certain sex, and what behavior for him or her banned. Gender role prescribes what professional activity is more acceptable for men and which for women. These views vary from epoch to epoch and within the same time and from nation to nation, from culture to culture. This distinguishes gender from biological sex characteristics. For example, a U.S. citizen from a biological point of view is no different from a resident of Saudi Arabia, but their different position in society, associated with the floor.

Gender as a social gender, may not coincide with the biological in the result of education. Such human history has taken place not only in "corrupt" modernity. For example, the famous female pirate Mary read parents as a child raised as a boy because of inheritance needed a male child. This subsequently led to her occupation, which in the early XVIII century, in principle, could not be considered "female".

Gender policy

Government policy related to the rights of men and women, sex differences, gender roles, called gender politics.

The gender policy of the state is largely determined by the traditions of a people – national and religious. So today in many Muslim countries the rights of men and women differ. For women the age of marriage comes earlier than for men. A man has a right to divorce his wife for no reason, and for women there is a hard list of reasons why she may demand a divorce. Women are prohibited much of what men, for example, to drive a car. If a woman broke the law, the responsibility of her husband.

In other States, who constitute the majority today, the law declares the equality of the sexes. The marriageable age the same for men and for women. The right to elect and be elected is not related to gender. Formally, the gender of the applicant may not be cause of denial of employment. However, the difference in rights and duties between men and women persist in some moments. For example, in the Russian Federation only men are subject to conscription in Israel – both men and women.
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