Features of the disease
Chickenpox is a common title of acute viral disease smallpox, which is transmitted by airborne droplets, characterized by a unique susceptibility - it is almost 100 %. The causative agent of chickenpox is a virus of the Herpesviridae family — varicella-zoster. It can cause two clinically different diseases as chicken pox and shingles. If the first disease is more common in children, adults suffer from second patients.
As you know, when chicken pox occurs generalized rosolino-vesicular rash that does not affect the stratum germinativum and eventually completely healing. However, if instead of waiting for drying to comb and pull out the crust, you can damage the sprout layer of the skin. In this case, vesicles of a lifetime will remain atrophic scar, so doctors strongly recommend to the end to cure vetryanye crust.
Who is at risk of catching it again with chicken pox
Among experts there is an opinion that if the first time the clinical manifestations are not very pronounced (there is no temperature, there remains a satisfactory General condition, rash is not very common), people had "not fully", and in the course of life he faces re-infection. However, scientific evidence as refutation of this theory does not exist yet.
In the vast majority of cases, according to doctors, shingles is an activation of the virus varicella-zoster, "dormant" in the body of the patient years, and sometimes decades.
However, it is not contested that re-infection with chickenpox may, in some cases. It happens quite rarely, usually on the background of a significant reduction in the immune system - due to chronic conditions, serious illness, during treatment of cancer. According to some experts, the risk of reinfection can also threaten the elderly, pregnant women, blood donors and those who have suffered an abundant hemorrhage.
Despite the fact that immunity after chickenpox is considered lifelong, the disease agent can exist in the human body for a very long time after the disease. During exacerbation in humans, as a rule, there is no classic chicken pox, and the second type of disease that causes varicella-zoster - "shingles". According to some sources, there were cases when people not only twice, but thrice endured chicken pox. As you know, adults, unlike children, carry the chickenpox so quickly and easily. Sometimes the recovery may require at least a month. To say in advance how long it will take a period of rehabilitation is almost impossible.
Prevention of varicella, vaccination
In 1974, Japanese scientist Michiaki Takahashi created the vaccine strain, called Oka (in honor of the child of vetranary vesicles which were able to identify a virus). Based on this strain was developed first vaccine chickenpox - "Arawaks", forming a strong immunity for many years. As it was established according to the results of a study conducted in Japan, within 20 years after vaccination by a preparation "of Arawaks" none of the vaccinated patients did not get sick, that is formed almost one hundred percent immunity. In Russia, the Japanese vaccine "Arawaks" was officially allowed since 2010.
Since 1995, vaccination against varicella was included in the vaccination scheme of the calendar, operating on the territory of the United States. Vaccination against chickenpox is also included in the corresponding calendar in Australia and Austria, in several provinces of Canada.
In Russia chicken pox vaccine is not yet included in the list of mandatory.