Advice 1: Antibiotics narrow spectrum

Antibiotics are drugs that effectively inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganisms. On spectrum antimicrobial action, they are classified as antibiotics are narrow or broad spectrum.
Antibiotics narrow spectrum

Drugs penicillin - antibiotics narrow spectrum



To antibiotics narrow spectrum of action includes drugs penicillin. They are the waste products of certain types of fungi. For the manufacture of drugs most often used were most active benzylpenicillin. Penicillin antibiotics include the "Bitsillin", "Oxacillin", "Ampicillin" and some others.

Penicillin affect gram-positive organisms from the list cocci (streptococci, pneumococci, staphylococci, etc.), spirochetes and some gram-negative microorganisms (gonococci, meningococci). Preparations of penicillin are ineffective against viruses of tuberculosis, protozoal infections, and most gram-negative microorganisms.
The penicillins are active against bacteria that cause anthrax, actinomycosis, photospheres.


Antibiotics based on penicillin are used to eliminate severe staphylococcal and streptococcal skin lesions, boils, gangrenous herpes zoster. These drugs can be administered to young children with severe PicoScope diseases: dermatitis, epidemic pemphigus newborns, pseudopodoces, erosive erythema of the buttocks. They are effective in the treatment of patients with lupus erythematosus, scleroderma.

Indications for use drugs streptomycin



Drugs of the streptomycin is also referred to antibiotics narrow spectrum of activity. Streptomycin is produced by radiant fungus called Actinomyces globisporus streptomycini, and other related microorganisms. Drugs of this fungus show an active effect on most gram-negative and some gram-positive microorganisms and acid-fast bacteria. To this group of antibiotics is "Streptomycin sulfate", "Dihydrostreptomycin Pantothenate", "Dihydrostreptomycin ascorbate", "Streptomycin".
Streptomycine do not have effective action on anaerobic bacteria, viruses, spirochetes, Rickettsia.


Drugs of the streptomycin prescribed for many skin diseases. They are used mostly in tuberculosis of various forms, including skin tuberculosis. Streptomycin in such cases is concurrent with other medications and bracing means. It is not recommended to use preparations of streptomycin for the treatment of tubercular diseases.

To take antibiotics narrow spectrum of action need only on prescription. The dose, duration of treatment determined by the physician individually in each case. Antibiotics produced in the form of tablets for oral administration, ampoules with solution for injections, in the form of powder to make solution. These medicines have certain side effects, their list is specified in the instructions to the drug.

Advice 2 : The strongest antibiotics

The most progressive achievement in the field of medicine is still considered the discovery of penicillin. This drug, named after the antibiotic that completely transformed the world. Today, modern pharmacology has hundreds of types of antibiotics that effectively treat a variety of difficult infectious diseases.
Antibiotics

Time penicillin was?



Medicine since penicillin has gone far ahead, creating a new generation of powerful drugs-analogues. The reason why modern doctors are forced to use a powerful antimicrobial tool is that harmful bacteria had to adapt to penicillin. Microbes are adapted and began to develop a special enzyme penicillinase, which can destroy antibiotics.


Antibiotics of the new generation



Most of the new antibiotics work selectively, i.e. their action is directed against the microorganisms one or two species. Today in the healing medicine found broad use of antibiotics of fluoroquinolone, cephalosporin, imipenem, macrolides, penicillins. The most strong antibiotics are broad-spectrum antibiotics that destroy gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.


Cephalosporins



To this group belong the most powerful antibiotics with a broad spectrum of activity, bactericidal working. These drugs are well tolerated by patients,with minimal side effects. Now the group of cephalosporins includes four generations.
• Drugs of the first generation.
Work well against staphylococcal infections cefadroxil ("Biotoxin", "Brief"), Cefazolin ("Kefzol", "Rizolin"), cephalexin ("Ospexin", "Sporidex").

• Drugs of the second generation.
Medications prescribed to combat intestinal and Haemophilus coli, Klebsiella. Is cefuroxime (Zinnat", "Katie", "Acetin", "Katie"), cefaclor ("Trace", "Verse").

• Drugs of the third generation.
Well established in the treatment of diseases such as pyelonephritis, meningitis, pneumonia, infections of the abdominal region, and osteomyelitis. These include ceftazidime ("Potrazim", "Fortum), Ceftriaxone (Cortef", "Lindzen"), cefoperazone ("Cefobid", "Medie"), Cefotaxime (Zeosin", "Klaforan").

• Preparations of the fourth generation — the most powerful of cephalosporins ("Cefepime").
The range of application is much wider than the previous group, together with the more and the list of side effects: disbacteriosis, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, the hematologic toxicity.


Macrolides



To antibiotics narrow application are macrolides that have proven themselves in the struggle against gram-positive microorganisms. The action of macrolides aims to stop the growth of bacterial cells, they do not inhibit the immune system.

The drugs in this group include "Erythromycin", "Spiramycin", "Oleandomycin", "Clarithromycin", Azithromycin", "Josamycin", "Roxithromycin". The most potent of the macrolides are considered "Josamycin and Clarithromycin". These medications are prescribed in the treatment of stomach ulcers, sinusitis, otitis, respiratory and chlamydia infections.
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