Advice 1: How to measure PPD

Mantu is a subcutaneous administration of tuberculin in the area of the forearm. At the injection site formed response immune response-type hypersensitivity. Its degree can help you to diagnose the development of TB and to assess whether the child needs to revaccination.
How to measure PPD
Instruction
1
Reaction the skin test is evaluated strictly in 72 hours after tuberculin injection, and estimates the health worker. Try to check that the measurements of the samples were produced on time.
2
The measurement is performed with a ruler, positioning it perpendicular to the axis of the forearm. So measure the size of the papule – swelling of the skin in the area of injection of tuberculin. If the papule is absent, estimate the reddening of the skin (hyperemia).
3
Negative reaction the skin test is called a complete lack of any response of the body, respectively, in the injection is only from the injectors. The dubious result is a papule with a diameter of 2-4 mm or only hyperemia. The reaction of 5 mm or more having a positive reaction, if the size of the papule is greater than 17 mm, then such reaction is called a hyperergic.
4
Usually in children vaccinated against tuberculosis in the hospital, the first 5 years there is a positive reaction of Mantu, which fades over time. If it is negative, it indicates that the vaccination was ineffective in this case, vaccination must be repeated.
5
Hyperergic reaction, swollen lymph nodes, a red mark from the sample test to the elbow, and the appearance of bubbles in the area of sample introduction can attest to the fact that there was an infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. If your child has such a reaction, contact your TB doctor, he will appreciate it, is the true response or the false, will appoint the necessary additional examination.
Note
Please note the contraindications for Mantoux test: skin diseases, epilepsy, exacerbation of chronic diseases, an Allergy, individual intolerance to the components of the sample.
Useful advice
In order to reduce the risk of false-positive reactions, make sure to drenched the area of the injection on the first day and not combed it.

Advice 2 : How to decipher the results of inoculation test

But the capture of the Mantoux test as a diagnostic event can prevent the development of tuberculosis. Preliminary results of vaccination can be assessed independently.
How to decipher the results of inoculation test
The more there are in the human immune cells that can deal with the tuberculosis Bacillus, the greater the width of the seal on the arm that occurs after vaccination Mantoux. Redness around it measure is not necessary, as they are not a sign of infection of tuberculosis.

Seal in people who have received the proper vaccination in childhood, seal is a pale pink color, distinct border is missing. From an infected person, it gets a bright red pigment and clear contours. In the case of suspected infection, the patient is sent to TB.

When the doctor is unable to determine a positive test with the infection or vaccination, the skin test is done again after six months. Discovered after that the red seal larger sizes indicates infection.

To exclude a situation when the results of the sample have the symptoms of a disease due to an individual Allergy to some components of the test, is an injection with a similar solution, but without tuberculin. If you define the same reaction to this test, are the medical records of the patients hypersensitive to the components of the test solution.

What can affect the test results?


Allergic diseases. It can be drug or food allergies, dermatitis. Also, the results of the reaction can influence immunity to non-tuberculous mycobacteria, age, chronic pathology.

Has the value of balanced nutrition kids, phase of the menstrual cycle in women, individual skin sensitivity. Affect the results of the samples can of worms. Influence the PPD is a harmful chemical emissions into the atmosphere of a specific region, as well as an increased radiation background.

The types of reactions on a sample



Negative. Redness after Mantoux missing, the seal does not appear or its width does not exceed 1 mm. This reaction indicates that the tubercle Bacillus does not leak into the patient's body. The same symptoms can occur in people who have contracted for the past 2.5 months old. and patients with very weakened immune systems.

Doubtful. This is the response when the width of the seal does not exceed 4 mm.

Positive. Formed seal width 5-16 mm. the Body with a reaction to the skin test has a good immunity against tuberculosis.

If the width of the seal in a child greater than 17 mm, and an adult - 21 mm, or in the place of Commission of the shot ulcers and ulcers, the reaction is considered hyperergic. This suggests that there was a hit a large number of bacteria tubercle Bacillus in the body, and the person infected. Healthy people can have a reaction if you suffer from allergies or have recently had an infectious disease.
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