You will need

- calculator

Instruction

1

Divide the markup as a percentage on the sum of the number of STA with a value that is equal to delimma. Next, multiply the total turnover of the resulting number is divided by one hundred. This approach is appropriate if the same percentage applied to the entire range. Calculations better repeat several times to exclude possible errors.

2

Add together the works of different trade and estimated trade margins by commodity groups. Then the result divide by one hundred. This formula is successfully applicable, if the different product groups is assigned a different percentage increase.

3

Multiply the average percentage of the gross income of the trade, and then divide by one hundred. This is the simplest mark-up that applies in the case of taking into account the goods at sale prices. This method also implies the calculation of the average percentage of the gross income. Fold the allowance trading balance of goods at the beginning of the reporting period and the margin on received during this time products. From the result, subtract the eliminated or degraded products. Next, divide this number by the sum of the turnover and the balance at the end of the reporting period multiplied by one hundred. Substitute the result into the first equation and calculate for the sample. The gross profit percentage ready.

4

Fold the allowance trading balance of goods at the beginning of the reporting period, trade allowance received during the reporting period. Then subtract from the resulting number allowance retired products. From the result of the previous two actions you now need to subtract the margin on the balance at the end of the working period. This method is used to calculate the gross income by range residue. But implementation must keep strict account of surcharge for each item. Such records should be carried out with a frequency of at least once a month.

# Advice 2: How to calculate profit

Profit characterizes the end results of the production process, is an indicator of the financial condition of the company. Of course, on the size of the profit may influence the variables, for example, the political situation in the country, natural disasters, as the reputation of the firm, etc., under the influence of which a profit may fluctuate in the short term. The same effect may have conducted extensive advertising campaigns of the company. Overall, however, the profits for the stable functioning of the enterprise is the value more or less constant, and this figure allows owners to plan for future activities.

How to calculate profit?

How to calculate profit?

Instruction

1

Size gross income – total revenue from sale of goods or services, as well as net income – total revenue from sale of goods or services minus the cost of returned goods (services) and discounts to the customers.

2

We expect the total cost of production of goods and services included in the cost of production.

3

Calculate the gross profit of the enterprise, which represents the difference between net sales revenue and cost of goods sold (services).

I.e., gross income = Net income – Cost of production.

I.e., gross income = Net income – Cost of production.

4

Determine the net profit.

Net profit = gross profit – Taxes, penalties, fines, interest on loans Operating expenses.

Operating expenses include the costs of searching for partners, conclusion of deals, the cost of training employees, the costs caused by force-majeure situations.

The net profit indicator just displays the final result of the activities of the company, shows how profitable the implementation of this kind of activity. Net profit (RAS) is used by entrepreneurs to increase working capital, the formation of various funds and reserves and for reinvestment in production. Net profit depends on the size of the gross profit and the magnitude of tax payments. If the company is a joint-stock company, dividends to shareholders are calculated, just based on the amount of net profit.

Net profit = gross profit – Taxes, penalties, fines, interest on loans Operating expenses.

Operating expenses include the costs of searching for partners, conclusion of deals, the cost of training employees, the costs caused by force-majeure situations.

The net profit indicator just displays the final result of the activities of the company, shows how profitable the implementation of this kind of activity. Net profit (RAS) is used by entrepreneurs to increase working capital, the formation of various funds and reserves and for reinvestment in production. Net profit depends on the size of the gross profit and the magnitude of tax payments. If the company is a joint-stock company, dividends to shareholders are calculated, just based on the amount of net profit.

Note

Profit is a key indicator of economic activity of the enterprise, reflecting how efficiently organized the production and sales process, not whether the inflated costs and is advantageous in General, the existence of this business unit.

# Advice 3: How to calculate compound interest

**The interest**rate on the Deposit is one of the indicators of profitability. So if you keep the money in the Bank, you should be able to read complex the percentage ofs, that is, when interest is added to the Deposit amount and then also involved in the calculation.

You will need

- calculator

Instruction

1

Use for calculating compound interest by the following formula summa=s×(1+p/100)^n, where the summa – the ultimate profit, s is the original amount of the Deposit, p – annual interest, that is interest rate, n is the number of years, months, days (period). For example, suppose you opened an account and deposited the R. of 10,000 at 5% per annum for 3 years. To see how much money is in your account at the end of the term, use the above formula, that is summa=10000×(1+5/100)^3=11576,25 R. Then your profit after 3 years will be equal to 11576,25−10000=1576,25 R.

2

Use the following formula to calculate compound interest for different interest periods: summa=s×(1+(p/100)×(g/y))^n, where g is the number of days the period which is made through capitalization, that is, the accrual of interest, thus, g=30, if interest is credited monthly, and g=90, if the capitalization of interest is quarterly, y is the number of days in the year (365 or 366 days).

3

For better understanding, consider an example. Let you open a Deposit at 6% per annum, the capitalization of interest is carried out monthly, initially at the expense you put 10,000 p. Then your amount in the account after 4 months will be summa=10000×(1+(6/100)×(30/365))^4=10198,72 R. now Let your contribution 10000 p opened at 6% per annum with interest capitalization every quarter. Then the amount of the contribution after six months will be summa=10000×(1+(6/100)×(90/365))^2=10298,08 R. Here, g=2, as in six months with this type of capitalization the interest would be charged twice.

4

Using this formula, we can Express the interest rate and the number of months (years). To calculate interest, use the formula p=((summa/s)^(1/n)-1)×100. For example, by what percentage you need to put the amount of 10 000 p. so after 5 years on the score was 15000 p – p=((15000/10000)^1/5−1)×100≈8,5%. To calculate period, use the following formula n=log<1+(p/100)>(summa/s). For example, how many years required to contribute at 10,000 R. at 6% per annum increased to 15000 p – n=log<1+(6/100)>(15000/10000)≈7 years.

Note

The sign ^ denotes exponentiation, the sign - the base of the logarithm.