You will need

- a sheet of paper, pen

Instruction

1

The probability of the event means, in essence, share the belief that a certain result will occur or not. Let you have some event And, for example, roll of the dice is an equilateral cube. We need to calculate

**the probability**that it will drop 2 points. In order to calculate**the probability**P of an event A is found by dividing the number of favorable events n cases of loss 2 points to the total number of events m.2

Count the number of cases of loss of 2 points on the dice. This is possible only in one case – when the dice will be 2 points, in any other case, the amount will be more. Thus, the number of favorable events n = 1.

3

Count the number of cases of loss of any of the numbers on the dice. 1 dice the possible options of hair loss points:

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Thus, the number of all favourable cases m = 6.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Thus, the number of all favourable cases m = 6.

4

Calculate

**the probability**of loss of 2 points on the dice: P = n/m= 1/6. Thus, only**the likelihood**th 1/6 of the dice will be 2 points, the chances are slim.5

If there are several auspicious events – for example, it is necessary that bones fell to (less than or equal to 4 points, then you need to add the total number of favorable events n = n1 + n2 + ...+ nx and divide it by the total number of cases. In this case, the cube will be up to 4 points if you get the following points: 1, 2, 3, 4 – all 4 options. Thus, the number of favorable events n = 4. Now

P = n/m= 4/6 = 2/3 – already more than half, the risk to lose is the third (if you roll 5 or 6).

**the probability**of loss up to 4 points on the dice:P = n/m= 4/6 = 2/3 – already more than half, the risk to lose is the third (if you roll 5 or 6).

6

In order to correctly calculate

**the probability**, don't forget to count absolutely all possible results, which will be the denominator, and remember that if something is not taken into account, the result will show the big share of probability, which can be a mistake. Upon the occurrence of simultaneous outcomes of several events is sometimes important priority of getting a result, then the total number of events is further increased.# Advice 2: How to calculate a factorial

**The factorial**of a natural number is the product of all previous natural numbers, including the number itself.

**The factorial**of zero equal to one. It seems that to calculate the factorial of a number is very easy – just multiply all the natural numbers not exceeding a certain. However, the value of the factorial grows so quickly that some calculators don't cope with this task.

You will need

- calculator, computer

Instruction

1

To calculate the factorial of a natural number, multiply all the natural numbers not exceeding this. Each number is counted only once. As a formula this can be written as follows:n! = 1*2*3*4*5*...*(n-2)*(n-1)*n, Gda is a natural number a factorial of which you want to calculate.

0! considered as equal to one (0!=1).With an increase of the argument the value of factorial increases very quickly, so the usual (financial) calculator for the factorial of 15 is it may give an error message.

0! considered as equal to one (0!=1).With an increase of the argument the value of factorial increases very quickly, so the usual (financial) calculator for the factorial of 15 is it may give an error message.

2

To calculate the factorial of large positive numbers, take a calculator. That is, the calculator on the keyboard which are marked with math functions (cos, sin, √). Enter to calculator original number, and then click calculate the factorial. Usually, this button is denoted as "n!" or similar (instead of the letter "n" might stand for "N" or "x", but the exclamation mark "!" factorial symbol should be present in any case).

For large values of the argument calculation results are displayed in "exponential" (exponential) form. For example, the factorial of 50 is presented in the form: e 3,0414093201713378043612608166065+64 (or similar). To get the result of the calculation in the normal manner, attribute to the number displayed before the "e" as many zeros as indicated after the "e+" (of course, if enough space).

For large values of the argument calculation results are displayed in "exponential" (exponential) form. For example, the factorial of 50 is presented in the form: e 3,0414093201713378043612608166065+64 (or similar). To get the result of the calculation in the normal manner, attribute to the number displayed before the "e" as many zeros as indicated after the "e+" (of course, if enough space).

3

To calculate the factorial of a number in the computer, run the calculator (standard Windows calculator). To do this, locate its image on the desktop or click on the button "start" and "Run". Then, type in the appeared window "calc" and hit "OK". View: how did you start the program "Calculator". If the picture resembles the ordinary "accounting" calculator, switch it to "engineering" mode. To do this, simply click on the item "View" and select in the list of options the string "Engineering".

After this, repeat the same steps that are listed in the previous paragraph of the instruction - enter the number and press "n!".

After this, repeat the same steps that are listed in the previous paragraph of the instruction - enter the number and press "n!".

4

"Calculate the factorial of a number is possible without the use of computer technology. To do this, simply print a table of factorials. Since the values of the factorial are increasing very rapidly, it is feasible to only print out factorials of numbers from 0 to 50. However, the practical application of such tables is very doubtful. Firstly, the entry of such multi-digit numbers will take a very long time, and secondly, the probability of entry errors, and, thirdly, it is not clear where to enter such a long number. Neither the display of the calculator or the Excel cell just barely fits so many figures.

# Advice 3: How to find a boy to be born

The sex ratio is regulated by nature itself. It is known that pregnancy occurs more often a boy than a girl. But the male fetus is more susceptible to negative factors and often die during pregnancy. According to statistics, 100 girls born, 106 boys. A baby's gender determined at fertilization.

You will need

- A thermometer or a special test to determine basal temperature.
- Spicy food with high content of potassium and sodium.
- Ancient Chinese table.
- Confidence and patience.

Instruction

1

One of the ways of determining the sex of the child based on the characteristics of sperm. The female egg cell contains only X chromosome and the sperm cell is the carrier of the X-and Y-chromosomes. The Y chromosome determines the development of male germ cells. Thus, if the egg is fertilized the X chromosome, then it's a girl. But if a Y-chromosome, then a boy.

So first of all it is necessary to accurately determine the date for the upcoming ovulation. For this it is necessary either to measure the basal temperature for several menstrual cycles, or buy a special test. If you want son, it is recommended to abstain during the week before ovulation. Sexual intercourse it is best to have on the day preceding or coinciding with the date of ovulation.

A statistical study showed that the method is effective approximately 80% of cases.

So first of all it is necessary to accurately determine the date for the upcoming ovulation. For this it is necessary either to measure the basal temperature for several menstrual cycles, or buy a special test. If you want son, it is recommended to abstain during the week before ovulation. Sexual intercourse it is best to have on the day preceding or coinciding with the date of ovulation.

A statistical study showed that the method is effective approximately 80% of cases.

2

The other method is recommended to calculate the age of the parents up to date. Then the mother's age is divided by 3, father - 4. Whose balance will be more child sex and work, because his blood is "newer". You must also consider the large loss of blood, after which the blood updated - surgery, childbirth, miscarriage, blood transfusion, blood donation.

3

The Chinese sages believed that the sex of the child depends directly from the mother's age and month of conception. Even a special table indicating favorable months for conception of a boy or girl depending on the age of the mother. The probability of this method is not more than 60%. Although many experts are inclined to this method.

The most favorable period for the birth of the boy is 18 years of age and the end of reproductive age. Men are the months from November to January. In this period the probability to have a boy more.

The most favorable period for the birth of the boy is 18 years of age and the end of reproductive age. Men are the months from November to January. In this period the probability to have a boy more.

4

In Ancient Egypt, gender was determined in the following manner, however, after conception. The urine of a pregnant woman poured the grains of barley and wheat. If first sprouted barley is expected the appearance of the boy. No scientific study of this pattern is not so far. However, the repetition of the experiment in the middle of the twentieth century showed the statistical reliability of the results. Error was found less than a third of cases.

5

Some studies claim to give birth to a boy, the woman should eat spicy foods with high salt content and sodium and potassium. Success is possible only if the feeding regime is strictly enforced.

If you have made every effort, but was born a girl, do not worry. Rejoice that you have a baby. Look around and see how many unhappy couples would like to be in your place. Because they are not yet able to become parents.

If you have made every effort, but was born a girl, do not worry. Rejoice that you have a baby. Look around and see how many unhappy couples would like to be in your place. Because they are not yet able to become parents.

Note

If you want to test the effect of food on the sex of the baby, be careful. The use of spicy and salty foods can lead to diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

Useful advice

The birth of a child of a particular sex is not an accident. Comes to the parents of the child who they want to realize themselves as parents. If children are born of one sex, it is necessary to understand why this is so. Girls are born to the parents learned tenderness and care. And the boys come to mom and dad learned of hardness, consistency. If you learn this, then the next child will be the gender of what you wish.

# Advice 4: How to calculate the variance

Dispersion refers to the absolute indicators variation. It represents the average square deviations of various values from its average value. Is used to denote the sign of σ^2.

You will need

- calculator.

Instruction

1

The variance in mathematical statistics and probability theory is defined as a measure of dispersion (deviation from average). The smaller the value of this index, the more uniform the set and in the closer range will be average.

2

In the econometric calculations tend to use General, intergroup and intragroup variance. The first describes how the symptom totality under the influence of all factors acting upon it. It can be calculated by the formula:

σ^2общ = (sum(x-khsr)*f)/sum of f, where

khsr – the General arithmetic mean for the whole population.

σ^2общ = (sum(x-khsr)*f)/sum of f, where

khsr – the General arithmetic mean for the whole population.

3

The between-group variance shows how the average deviates each group from the total for all groups. It reflects the influence of the factor is put at the base of the group. It can be found as follows:

σ^2m = (sum(HSR-khsr)*ni)/sum ni, where

HSR is the average value of the characteristic for a particular group;

ni – the number of units in the group;

khsr – average value, characteristic for the total number of groups.

σ^2m = (sum(HSR-khsr)*ni)/sum ni, where

HSR is the average value of the characteristic for a particular group;

ni – the number of units in the group;

khsr – average value, characteristic for the total number of groups.

4

Intra-group (residual) variance characterizes the fluctuation of the characteristic within each group. She talks about random variations and do not depend on the basis, forms the basis of the group. For its calculation, you must first find the variance for individual groups:

σ^2ві = (sum(x-HCR)*ni)/sum ni, where

HSR average for each group.

And then the average for all groups according to the formula:

σ^2іср = (sum(σ^2ві*ni)/sum ni.

σ^2ві = (sum(x-HCR)*ni)/sum ni, where

HSR average for each group.

And then the average for all groups according to the formula:

σ^2іср = (sum(σ^2ві*ni)/sum ni.

5

They are all intertwined: the total variance is equal to the sum of intergroup and intragroup medium. This ratio reflects the rule of addition the dispersions. It can be represented as follows:

σ^2общ = σ^2m+ σ^2іср

σ^2общ = σ^2m+ σ^2іср

6

Using this rule, you can determine what portion of the total variance is influenced by the trait-factor, which underlay the groups. The higher the proportion of between-group variance in General, the stronger the influence of this factor.

# Advice 5: How to calculate hull

Before placing

**the hull**on your car, you should review the tariffs**of the insurance**offered on the market modern car insurance to use the services of the company where the price will be minimal.Instruction

1

Their responsibility in road traffic, the vehicle owners must insure. Really protects only voluntary car insurance

You should know that the price

**CASCO**. Different insurers price**CASCO**differ. It happens that on a similar program in an insurance company to purchase a**hull**can be twice cheaper than at another firm.You should know that the price

**of insurance**depends on the brand and features of operation of the vehicle, as well as from the insurance company. In determining the price of car insurance in**hull**take a certain percentage of the cost of the machine itself. Before you choose a condition, you must specify a percentage, because it varies on different machines: truck 3%, for used cars up to 14%.2

In our country the car can hijack any and every, so find out the dependence of % on

Many companies determine the risk of the car's value, on the one hand it is logical, but from the point of view of the establishment of "risk" (probability of insured event) — not justified.

**the hull**to the degree of postulasti machine. For example, according to statistics steal every second Audi A6. The risk group also includes Passat and Volkswagen Golf, Fields, Dozens, etc.Many companies determine the risk of the car's value, on the one hand it is logical, but from the point of view of the establishment of "risk" (probability of insured event) — not justified.

3

In addition, you need to ask depends on whether the % on

**the hull**from the "age" machine" and thus will pay for the repair/replacement of spare parts as for new parts, or as used for.4

Also try to find out, does the price of car insurance for

Given all these tips, the cost of

**hull**age and experience of the driver. For advertising purposes, some companies perform discounts to car owners with children, or Vice versa, if the woman behind the wheel, then apply the multiplying factors.Given all these tips, the cost of

**the hull**of your car you will be able to count when completing the questionnaire and comparing rates, choose for themselves the most appropriate option.