You will need
- Buy a textbook or reference book on Russian language. The Internet also has many websites with lots of background information and exercises that will help consolidate your knowledge.
The easiest way to pre-check whether you have placed punctuation marks, to say it out loud. Where you make a semantic or intonational pause, most likely, there should be some punctuation. Incorrect placement of punctuation often leads to distortion of the meaning of the sentence (paradigmatic example: "Execute not pardon" or "eats, pardon"). However, to place them "from the bulldozer" will not work. First you have to get acquainted with the rules of punctuation in Russian.
The easiest way to learn how to put a dot, dot, question mark and exclamation mark, brackets, quotation marks. For example, a point is placed at the end of declarative sentences, and also in the abbreviation of words and initials. Question and exclamation marks convey the intonation of speech – question, exclamation, surprise, etc. In brackets is usually additional information, some explanation. If you remove the words enclosed in brackets, from the proposal, the meaning of the phrase should not be changed. An ellipsis often indicates a pending proposal, as if the speaker is not fully expressed his thought or suddenly hesitated.
Most difficulties causes placement of commas. And rules relating to this punctuation, the most. Commas separate words (for example, name at address, introductory words, interjections, words in the enumeration, etc.) and sentences inside sentences (divide main and subordinate clause, participial, comparative, attributive and adverbial momentum). Each of these rules need to learn. Their continued use will become a habit and you won't even think about it, where here the main, and where clauses.
If you are unsure how to punctuate a particular sentence, then you can take the help of any of the reference services of the Russian language in the Internet. On questions users answer qualified experts who will explain where, how and why it is necessary to put punctuation marks.
Advice 2 : How to check commas
Written language is complicated by the fact that there are some rules that you need to know in order to be considered an educated person. The presence of spelling and punctuation errors may adversely affect the impression of business partners, employers and sweetheart. Learning to correctly place the commas!
You will need
- Textbook of the Russian language, knowledge of rules of punctuation
Define the structure of a sentence. Sentences can be simple or complex. In one simple grammatical basis in the complex - two or more. Based on the subject (answers the questions: who? what?) and the predicate (answers the questions: what does? what did?). For example, a simple sentence: "Sasha bought cake, chocolate and waffles" ("Sasha" - subject, "bought" is the verb, a comma separated homogeneous add-ons: "cake", "chocolate", "wafer"). Complex sentence such as, "Dad told her that we will arrive late" (first base: male subject, "said" - verb, second base: "we" is the subject "come" - sigueme).
Consider a simple sentence. In simple sentences, a comma usually separates the homogeneous members of the sentence, for example, when the transfer: "I brought yellow, red and blue balls. The app, priced after personal pronouns, segregated by commas on both sides: "I, the journalist, could not believe that the newspaper issued by one person". Also, we put commas at the expressions with explanatory momentum (i.e., (and), even, especially, mainly, including, for example, in particular, and, moreover) and introductory words (apparently so, likely, probably). Stand out Supplement with prepositions besides, apart from, excepting, excluding, including, and beyond: "Who but the mother regret it?" Commas put and the allocation of ownership and verbal participle phrases (and involved in emit only when they are defined): "Land, watered by rain, turned black and cold" (gerund). "Approaching the station, I lost my hat" (the participial turnover).
Determine the type of complex sentences. If you found two grammatical basis in the offer, you should determine its type: coordinating or subordinating. In coordinating simple sentences are joined without Union or with the conjunction and, and but. In a compound sentence, you will see the dependence of one part from another and unions as, as if, what, who, when, since, unless, before, where, and others.
Analyze run-on sentence. All proposals included in its composition, equivalently, as a rule, can be separated from each other: "We looked out the window, my mother was cooking dinner." The presence of the preposition a, but speaks of the necessity of the comma front. Before preposition in a complex sentence, a comma, for example: "the Summer was the debilitating heat, and we went South." The other commas are placed according to the same rules as in a simple sentence.
Analyze complex sentence. A comma separates simple sentences included in it, and there is importantly, there is dependent (s) offer (s). Dependent (subordinate) clause in the composition of the compound marked by the presence of the Union: Until we looked on the field (dependent supply), the girl ran away (main). From the main we can ask the question to the dependent. Thus we distinguish them from one another, so we know where exactly a comma.
If a simple sentence have a common secondary member, a lead-in, treatment, put a comma: In the gardens a band was playing and singing folk choir. also do not put a comma in a complex sentence with the subordinate General: "When I returned home, the sunshine was gone and grandpa must have went to bed".
If you are in doubt whether to put a comma, change the sentence so that the problem disappeared: break a complex sentence into two simple, reduce the number of introductory words, replace the participial momentum in the subordinate clause.