Advice 1: How to apply for direct speech

The utterance can be transmitted via indirect or direct speech. The last letter can be difficult because the punctuation depends on the location of the author's context in relation to the direct speech.
How to apply for direct speech
If more words are located before the direct speech, you put them after a colon, open quotation marks, and direct speech write with an uppercase letter. At the end of the direct speech is interrogative or an exclamation mark quotation marks are placed after it, and the proposal narrative are closing quotation marks and put a dot.

Examples: Andrew said: "I will now play".

He said, "What are you doing?"

He exclaimed: "How beautiful the view from the window!"
If direct speech is preceded by the author's words, enclose it in quotation marks, start with a capital letter, put a dash, and the words of the author write in small letters, at the end of a sentence dot. Exclamation and question marks after direct speech is always put inside the quotation marks, comma in direct speech without emotional coloring - after quotation marks and before the dash.

Examples: "I'm going to play," said Andrew.

"What are you doing?" "he asked.

"What a wonderful view from the window!" he exclaimed.
Direct speech may be interrupted author's words. In this case, the quotation marks open and close once, write direct speech with a capital letter, put a comma and a dash after the first part, the author's words write with a lowercase letter after them again, put the comma and a dash:

"Direct speech, - author, - direct speech". Note that after the author's words, put commas and direct speech begins with a small letter. For example: "Go on," the girl said, "I follow you".

"Direct speech, the author. - Direct speech". For example: "in the Evening you come to visit," he said. I need a serious talk."

"Direct speech!(?) - the author. - Direct speech". For example: "What a beautiful day, isn't it? – asked Katya. – I sincerely admire the nature.
Direct speech is inside the author's words. In this case, place punctuation in the following schemes:

Author: "Direct speech" - the author.

Example. He muttered: "I really want to sleep," and immediately fell asleep.

Author: "Direct speech!(?)" - the author.

Example. I heard a voice from the hall: "How could you?" - and Sergei Petrovich came into the room.

Author: Direct it..." - author.

Example. The captain said, "would now the Wind blew..." and he looked up into the sea.
The design of the dialogue is perhaps one of the following methods: In one line, are written to all replicas more words between them do not exist. By using a hyphen separates each replica, enclosed in quotation marks.

Example. For several minutes they walked in silence. Elizabeth asked, "How long will you be gone?" - "Two months". "You call me or write?" "Yes, of course!"
A new line is written every subsequent remark, which is placed in front of the dash. Quotation marks in this case are not used.


- You are cold, Catherine. "asked Ivan Petrovich.

- No.

- Let's go to the cafe.

Design quotes:

- Quote written by one of the methods of registration of direct speech.

Example. Belinsky believed that "Literature is the people's consciousness, color, and the fruit of his spiritual life."

- Part of the quote is not given, and its omission marked by an ellipsis.

Example. Goncharov wrote: "All the words of Chatsky will spread... and produce a storm.

- Quote is part of the author's text. In this case it is written with a lowercase letter and is enclosed in quotes.

Example. Belinsky notes that Pushkin has an amazing ability to make the prosaic poetic objects".

To quote the poetic text follows without quotes, observing the lines and stanzas.

Advice 2 : How to build a sentence in Russian language according to the scheme

You got to the house homework on the Russian language, to make proposals on schemes, but don't know how to do it? Do not worry. You can easily do the job if you meet the following guidelines.
How to build a sentence in Russian language according to the scheme
Why not dispense with schemes for Russian lessons?
Schemes allow to see the structure of the sentence, identify its parts and to reflect the setting of punctuation marks. It is easy to see the boundaries of simple sentences in the complex.
If you learn to work with drawings on the lessons of the Russian language, it will not allow punctuation errors in the letter.
You begin to learn to make proposals on schemes in the fifth grade, when a friend, for example, with direct speech. This is the simplest scheme. They are usually with the letter P to denote direct speech, and the letter a - words of the author.
For example, you need to make a sentence with direct speech according to the scheme "N - A". You see what video it is before the words of the author. You can make a suggestion:
"Tomorrow we can come to you," said Peter.
In ninth grade, you become acquainted with more complex schemes during the study compound, and conjunctionless compound sentences. In compound sentences, each sentence is independent. In the diagrams, their boundaries denoted by square brackets. For example, according to this scheme [] and [], you can make the following offer:
It was beautiful weather and we decided to go swimming.
You have got a compound sentence, consisting of two parts which are connected by the conjunction "And".
In compound sentence parts of unequal. Such proposals consist of main and subordinate clauses (sometimes several). The main proposal in the scheme is denoted by square brackets, you put the question to the subordinate. A subordinate clause is a parenthesis. For example, you need to make a proposal for such a scheme [ ], (because...). You should have a complex sentence consisting of two simple (main and subordinate) associated with "because". It is possible to make the following proposal:
We went on a trip because the weather was good.
If you need to make the offer according to the following scheme [] : [] you are dealing with the complex asyndetic sentence. You can write the following sentence:
We were late to dinner and I had to zigzag through the streets of the city.
You see that in a compound sentence, two independent parts, non-unions, between which there is a colon.
Useful advice
Make proposals to the schemes. This activity will help you to avoid mistakes in the letter.

Advice 3 : How to draw a diagram of the proposal

A lot of guys, getting homework, to make the scheme to the proposals, I think it is a waste of time. They think it is important not to make mistakes on the letter, not able to make the scheme. But this view is incorrect. If you learn quickly and correctly to make the scheme, it will be good to see the structure of the sentence. This will help you to avoid punctuation errors in the letter.
How to draw a diagram of the proposal
On Russian lessons in the fifth grade you get to know the proposalsand in which there is direct speech. They consist of the words of the author and the direct speech. For example:
"Tomorrow's lesson will come to us veteran - said the teacher.
In this sentence the first part, enclosed in quotation marks - direct speech and the second the author's words. Direct speech in the diagram is expressed by the letter P, the author's words - with the letter. Write the letter a title, if the words of the author are in the beginning of the sentence and are capitalized. To the previous suggestion you should make the following scheme: P.
In the study of simple and compound sentences, too, you are dealing with the schemes. So, if the sentence is simple, i.e. consists of a single grammatical basis, the scheme will be as follows: [-=]. square brackets mark the boundaries of sentences and one and two lines - the main members of a sentence(one line is the subject and two predicate).If two homogeneous subject or predicates, make the following scheme:
[-, -=].
[-=, =].
When mapping to complex sentences not forget that the proposals are the Union complex (compound and compound) and asyndetic. In such sentences a few parts, this should be reflected in the scheme. For example, you need to make a scheme for such a complex proposal:
To us there arrived relatives from Samara, and we went to show them the sights of our city.
You should have the following: [= -] [ -=].The proposal two grammatical foundations. It is displayed in the schema by brackets. In the first simple, which is part of the complex predicate is the word "came", and the subject - the word "family". Accordingly, in the second the subject is 'we', a compound verb - "went to show.
Be aware that if you make a schema to a compound sentence, which are the main and the subordinate clause, you need not only the square brackets(as in previous proposals), but also round. Subordinate clauses which depend on main that you can put the question in the schemes expressed by parentheses. For example, you need to create a schema to this compound sentence:
The teacher told us to hurry up.In this sentence, the main part is the first and subordinate the second. She is joined by means of Union. You should make the following scheme: [-=],(below ).Match the scheme to the proposals. This will help you to correctly place the punctuation.

Advice 4 : What is direct speech

The inclusion in the narrative of words belonging to others, always creates some grammatical and punctuation difficulties when creating text. In order to properly execute it directly on the letter, it is necessary to understand this phenomenon.
What is direct speech
Direct speech is one of the main ways of transfer of another's speech. It is presented in one or more sentences, where the writer literally reproduces the speech of another person on his behalf. While retaining all the grammatical, syntactic and stylistic features of a foreign language. Direct speech can serve for the expression of the speech of another person or spoken before the speech writer.
Ordinary direct speech is accompanied by the author's words, commenting on what and how the phrase was uttered. The author's words are the main tool for inclusion of foreign speech into text, as in the rest of the direct speech remains unchanged and is not subject to the restructuring of the language constructs, as it happens, for example, in indirect speech.
The words of the author are expressed by verbs that indicate the process of speaking ("said", "replied", "said", "shouted") or thinking ("thought", "thought"). It can also be verbs that describe the associated action ("smile", "slapped his forehead", "wink"). Sometimes verbs are replaced by verbal nouns with the same value. The words of the author precedes the direct speech, follow it or are within it.
How are the text the author's words, depends on the setting of punctuation marks in the text where there is direct speech. If the sentence begins with the words of the author, after them is followed by a colon, and the very direct speech quotation marks are allocated. In the case where the author's review is after the direct speech is in quotation marks and ends with a dash. The dot and comma at the end of the direct speech are placed outside the quotation marks, and ellipses, exclamation and question marks inside them.
More difficult situation is when the author's words divide the direct speech into two parts. If it is expressed in one sentence, then the punctuation can be expressed by the schema "P, - a, - p./?/!", where "a" is the words of the author, and "N" –direct speech. When the transfer of a foreign language is performed by means of the two proposals, the scheme looks like: "P,/?/! . P./?/!".
Useful advice
Dialogue is one of the varieties of direct speech. It can be applied without commenting on the words of the author, and different stands out in the letter.

Advice 5 : How to highlight direct speech

Constructions with direct speech are used for accurate transmission of someone else's words. In this case, when reproduction of statements, used more words, containing a verb of speech or thought and word combinations with the nouns close in meaning to such verbs. Registration for the punctuation of direct speech quotation marks are used, it always starts with a capital letter.
How to highlight direct speech
You will need
  • - syntax for the analysis.
To highlight the direct speech first, find the author's words that it is introduced into syntax. For naming the fact of speech are commonly used:
- verbs of speech or thought (to speak, to ask, to think, etc.);
- verbs indicating the nature of speech and its connection with the previous statement (begin, continue, add, etc.);
- verbs expressing the purpose of speech (to ask, to explain, to agree, etc.);
- phrases with nouns (to ask a question, pronounce words, etc.);
- verbal nouns (the voice, the shout, a whisper, a thought, etc.).
Identify where direct speech in relation to the words of the author. Author's speech may introduce, conclude, or break the direct speech.
Using punctuation marks of the Russian language, scroll to direct speech. In this case, observe the rules of punctuation clearance design.
If the author's words preceding direct speech, in front of her, put a colon and end – a necessary sign to indicate the purpose of utterances (dot, exclamation or question marks, ellipsis). Start direct speech with a capital letter. Please note that the period is placed after the closed quotes. Compare:
• Svetlana exclaimed, "amazing Feast today!"
• Svetlanka said: "the Feast is amazing."
If the author's words conclude direct speech, enclose it in quotation marks, separate the author's speech with a dash, in front of which required a sign pointing to the goal statements. A comma if the sentence is declarative, as well as a possible exclamation or question marks, ellipsis. The author's words are written with a lowercase letter.
• "You sit there," whispered Makarych.
Tearing direct speech the author's words begin with a lowercase letter and highlight a dash and a comma if the direct speech is a simple or asyndetic complex sentence. Keep it straight with a lowercase letter, and at the end put need to refer to the purpose of communication sign.
• "About your business − addressed Prince Andrew again Boris, we will talk after".
When you break the direct speech consisting of separate sentences, after the words the author put the point, and the second part of direct speech start with a capital letter.
• "Yes, slander, − continued Schultz. – It is so common among people that succumb to it very easily."
If the author's words verbs belonging to different parts of direct speech, the author put a colon and a dash.
• "What a misunderstanding,' said Andrew, shrugged his shoulders and repeated: − Misunderstanding".
If direct speech breaks the words of the author, its introduction make with a colon and end with a comma or a dash before the author's speech, given the context.
• He said to me: "I am a loyal friend!" and touched my dress.

Advice 6 : How to diagram sentences with direct speech

Direct speech is used in artistic, journalistic, scientific and popular texts for verbatim transmission of statements or thoughts of any person. Sentences with direct speech consists of two parts: a replica of the character and the explanations of the author. The Union of the parts takes place without the introduction of unions. Depending on the location of the proposal according to the author there are several methods of registration of direct speech in writing. For each of them you can make a custom plan.
How to diagram sentences with direct speech
Read the text for which you want to chart. Find the direct speech. For clarity, it can be identified, for example, to underline in red pencil. Determine where the start and end words of the author. Their emphasize with a pencil blue. Please note, if continues after the direct speech author's words. It may consist of one or two sentences, linked by intonation.
Mark, what is emotional is direct speech. The sentence may be exclamatory, declarative, interrogative. In the end it is the appropriate punctuation, it is important to reflect in the scheme.
Use the legend to chart. The words of the author, as a rule, represent a capital or a lowercase "a", saying the character is a uppercase or a lowercase letter "p". It the character is enclosed in quotes. From the words of the author it separates the dash. However, the dashes are placed before direct speech, starting a proposal.
Check you compiled the schema. She must meet one of the following samples. If your option differs from the standard, perhaps you made a mistake when determining the direct speech and the words of the author, or missed the necessary punctuation.
Scheme No. 1: direct speech author's words. Saying a character is written with capital letters and enclosed in quotes. At the end of it a comma, exclamation or question mark in accordance with the intonation of a sentence. The author's words are written with lowercase letters and separated from the direct speech dash. Examples:
1. "The house," said the father.
2. "The guests arrived!", - happy father.
3. "The guests arrived?" - surprised father.
For these proposals the scheme will be as follows:
1. P.
2. "P!" .
3. "P?" .
Scheme No. 2: direct speech after the author. The words of the author are capitalized. After them there is a colon. Next, in quotes with a capital letter should be direct speech. Examples:
1. The father said, "the house".
2. The father was delighted: "the Guests arrived!"
3. The father was surprised: "the Guests arrived?"
Schemes such sentences have the form:
1. A: "P".
2. AND: "P!"
3. AND: "P?"
Scheme No. 3: the words of the author inside of direct speech. In this case, the quotation is the entire sentence. After the first part of direct speech a comma. The copyright part is written with a lowercase letter. Before the words of the author and put a dash after them. The second part of direct speech may be a continuation of the first, then it is spelled with a lowercase letter. If it is an independent sentence, after the words the author put a dot and then the text starts with a capital letter. Examples:
1. "The guests arrived, the father said, - go to meet them".
2. "The guests arrived, her father said. – Go to meet them".
The right diagram sentences in this case:
1. "P, - a, - p".
2. "P - and. – P".
Scheme No. 4: direct speech inside the words of the author. The first part of the words of the author is written with a capital letter, the second with a lowercase. Direct speech is quoted. Front of her put a colon after it – the intonation necessary punctuation and dashes. Examples:
1. The father said, "the Guests arrived," and went to meet them.
2. The father was delighted: "the Guests arrived!" and went to meet them.
3. The father was surprised: "the Guests arrived?" and went to meet them.
For such proposals fit with the following schema:
1. A: P - a.
2. AND: "P!" .
3. AND: "P?" .
Is the advice useful?