Advice 1: How to make a dugout

A dugout is a house, made in the ground. It can be quite comfortable to live and even to spend the winter. After the great Patriotic war in dugouts than a year in the lives of hundreds of thousands of people. Right to make a dugout is a real art. But when a house in the land is ready, it will allow winter to save on heating, and in summer to escape the heat.
How to make a dugout
You will need
  • The door bars 50Х100Х5000, boards, lining boards, floor boards, roofing material, nails, foam sheets.
Instruction
1
You first need to choose a place for the dugout and on it mark its outer perimeter. Corners were squared and the face smooth, the corners need to drive stakes and stretch a rope between them. Then remove the turf from the selected square or rectangle. Now you can start to dig to a depth of at least 1 m 70 cm you Can dig a hole with the excavator, but the floor and walls should be levelled with a shovel. Walls should have a slight negative slope. You also need to dig up the slopes to the entrance and the window, they need to be gentle.
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2
When the pit is ready, in the corners it is necessary to dig along the vertical timber to a depth of 50 cm from the Top rail should be flush with the floor. Since the wall was made with a negative angle between the beam and them stayed the distance. It is necessary to stud battens. Then attach door and window frames in the scheduled areas. The top boards need to put the roofing material, all voids covered with soil and well compacted.
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3
Now we have to take care of the roof. To do this, dig the bars in the middle of the front and rear walls, and in the middle of the room, half the distance between the walls. Bars should stick out of the ground to the desired height. They should be connected with each other in another horizontal bar – the ridge of the roof. Also need to fix the horizontal bars on the side walls of the dugout. Between the bars to do the joists, laying them on one end of the horizontal bars, fastened along the walls, and the other, a horizontal beam in the middle. This frame should be nailed paneling on it to put the roofing material. The top should be put on the roof removed the turf – it will give excellent insulation. Inside the ceiling can sheathe clapboard or plywood, not forgetting to lay a foam for heat between the outer and inner lining.
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4
Paul can be any. But to begin to lay the boards-joists. The joists should be using a framing hammer and a level to align the height, and then they nail another material, such as chipboard. Can be put on top of the carpet to make it warmer.
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Advice 2: How to build a dugout

There is no doubt that the dugout is the best option for structures made with their own hands. Dugout quite quickly, as a substantial part of it is hidden underground. To create such structures do not require a lot of time. The ability to keep heat from the dugouts is much higher compared to ordinary tents. A special attachment is required, the dugout can be created from scrap materials. However, it is better to use high quality material to get a good result.
How to build a dugout
You will need
  • 1) Shovel
  • 2) Roulette
  • 3) Hacksaw
  • 4) Axe
  • 5) Hammer
  • 6) Nails
  • 7) building Material
Instruction
1
You first need to find a place for your dugout and make measurements. When choosing where you need to consider the terrain. Try to arrange the future hut on an elevated location, at least, on the plain. If the hut will be in the ravine, or in the lowlands, it will inevitably be flooding during rains or melting snow. So please be careful. If you need a disguised dwelling, then choose the enclosed trees of the area. When building in the woods, the ideal option would be a small glade, enclosed on all sides by trees.
2
After choosing where to begin the layout. Based on the requirements, think through the size of the dugout. Mark out two rectangles: the outer rectangle is the border of your dug; inner will be 10-15 centimeters from the edges of the outer rectangle. This is the boundary of the interior trim of the dugout.
3
Start digging the pit. It is necessary to dig along the edge of the outer rectangle. But the boundary of the inner rectangle should not be lost. This is one of the time-consuming processes, therefore, it is desirable that the work was done by several people. The depth of the pits ranges from 1-1,5 meters depending on the soil. Choosing one of the short sides of the rectangle, dig a staircase that will serve as entrance. The entrance needs to go beyond the boundaries of the dugout.
4
Harvest or buy timber. You can use the trees. Beam length is 2.5 m and thickness of 15 cm To work, you need three such beams. Pour in and strengthen them in the middle of the dugout at equal from each other a distance. Distance is calculated based on the size of the dugout. Fasten them well to the timber in any case not staggered. He is the backbone of the roof and bearing walls, so take it to strengthen special attention.
5
After that, put another beam, whose length is slightly greater than the length of the dugout. He laid on top of the previously installed beams and reinforced at the top. After that, at a distance of 30 centimeters from the outer perimeter of the dugout stacked logs with a thickness of 10 centimeters and strengthen them on the ground. After that, the erected wall by nailing boards or logs to the upper bar, and a log lying on the ground.
6
This is followed by the strengthening of the Foundation dug, and then laid a layer of branches for the roof. If necessary, you can lay the roofing material. The internal borders of the rectangle you marked, fit clothing – a layer of twigs, which serve as insulation, and, in fact, is the internal walls of the dugout. Remains to disguise the dugout, to produce and to organize the life inside the building.
Note
Poles for laying the floor take neskorenyi without planning or sanded with pricesmay to each other. In the first case, the poles should have a thickness of 5-6 cm, in the second — not less. 7 see If the dugout is constructed of cundy peeled poles, the room is more hygienic, reduces the number of insects that nest under the bark of wood.

Advice 3: How to align the joists

The joists are wooden beams, which comprises the frame of the floor. If we are talking about a wooden house-frame, and joists in such construction are also made out of logs, usually from a dry pine. Not always the joists for the floor are placed perfectly straight. It happens that the forest is not very dry, and sometimes the master down. So we have to correct the mistakes of the employees. Align the joists from roundwood by his treatment.
How to align the joists
Instruction
1
Mark levels of construction, what part of the round logs you will need to remove, mark with a pencil on both sides.
2
Hammer fine carnations at one end of the joists at the chalk line. Tie him to the twine, grated charcoal, stretch it and nail a thin nail to the intended line from the other end of the joists. Take the rope in the middle and pull like a bowstring release. The twine will snap into place and mark a smooth line along the coal just round logs.
3
Do the same with other hand round the joists. Take a chainsaw and carefully ndelete the beam over the entire length in increments of 10-15 cm to the level observed with twine.
4
Take a hatchet or a chisel, stelite unnecessary part of the logs to charcoal marks from its entire length. Align the planer. Lagi is ready. You can lay them on hardwood floors.
5
To trim the joists in the finished apartment enjoy in a different way. For this is a relatively young technology adjustable lag. You will need: a wooden beam 50x50 mm special plastic bolt racks, screws.
6
Drill the rod the threaded holes with a diameter equal to the diameter of the bolts the uprights, with a pitch of 35-40 see
Screw hole bolt racks, lay out the joists on the floor, stepping back from the wall by 6 cm, the distance between logs should be 40-50 cm between the beams joined with a minimum gap of 10 mm.
7
Using bolt racks, drill overlapping holes to a depth of 40 mm for fastening screws. Slightly screw the screws in bolt racks. Align the joists at the building level, tightening the bolt racks as needed.
8
Aligned on top of the lag lay the subfloor of plywood or 12 mm chipboard.
Such alignment allows the lag to achieve maximum accuracy and minimum level difference of the sexes in 1 mm.
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