You will need
  • - Clay;
  • - The ground;
  • - Peat;
  • - Sod.
You must first choose the place in the pond. According to the map or on the ground, determine the place that will have a large capacity and large catchment area. Catchment area - an area which drains rainfall and melt water, the bigger it is, the more will be arriving water in the pond. Okay if high capacity is achieved by depth with a small mirror and the small size of the dam.
The bottom and banks of the pond should consist of waterproof or low permeability to water of soil - clay, loam. The shore should not be too shallow, as it produces a lot of small places, which are overgrown with grass - the water goes bad, the pond shallower. Too steep banks are quickly eroded. Very well, if at the bottom of the pond or above it will beat the springs that replenish the pond with fresh water.
Dam start doing at the narrowest point of the Creek, or the ravine of the beam - so you have less to conduct excavation work. So they do not erode the dam, in close proximity to it should not be the springs.
First, the location of the dam, dig a moat and fill it with well-compacted clay is the castle of the dam. Then made a clay wall, which deepens into the bottom and sides of the ravine is the screen of the dam, and part of, embedded in the bottom, is called a tooth.
Soil for the construction of the dam, use a loam or sandy loam, with clay content 30-40%. To determine the suitability of the soil in this way - take a glass and fill it with soil to half, mix well, after 2-3 hours the turbidity settles and the sand will settle to the bottom. Measure the sand layer and the clay layer, if the layer of sand is equal to 30 mm, and a layer of clay 20 mm, it means that the soil is approximately 40% clay.
The crest of the dam should be above the highest expected level of water on one meter. The width of the dam is calculated from, is it the pedestrian or the road. The width of the pedestrian dam with a height of 4 meters will be approximately 3 meters. The steepness of the slopes depends on the soil type with a high content of clay they are more cool.
The dam is not to do with the cold and the rain. Follow hit the ground roots of trees, when they rot, are formed holes, through which will leave the water. The surface of the dam will strengthen the sod with tightly fused fine grass. From the pond instead of sod it is better to take the peat - it is a durable rot the tire.