You will need

- - transformer;
- - AC power source;
- tester;
- calculator.

Instruction

1

Take an ordinary transformer. It consists of two coils. Find the number of turns of coil N1 and N2, which are the basis of the transformer and connected to the magnetic circuit. Determine the coefficient

**of transformation**k. To do this, divide the number of turns of the primary coil N1, which is connected to the current source, the number of turns of the secondary coil N2 connects to load: k=N1/N2.2

Example. Winding of the transformer connected to the current source, has 200 turns and the other winding of 1200 turns. Determine the coefficient

**of transformation**and the type of the transformer. Find the primary and secondary windings. The primary is the one that is connected to the current source, it has 200 turns. The secondary winding is respectively 1200 turns. Calculate the coefficient**of transformation**according to the formula: k=N1/N2=200/1200=1/6≈0,167. Transformer increases.3

Measure electromotive force (EMF) on both windings of the transformer ε1 and ε2, if it is not possible to know the number of turns in them. To do this, connect the primary winding of the transformer to the power supply. This mode is called idle. With a tester find the voltage across the primary and secondary winding. It will be equal to the EMF of each winding. Keep in mind that energy losses due to the resistance of the windings are negligibly small. Calculate the rate

**of transformation**the ratio of the EMF of the primary and secondary winding: k= ε1/ε2.4

Example. The voltage across the primary winding after the connection to the source of current is 220 V. an open On the secondary winding voltage is 55 V. Find the coefficient

**of transformation**. The transformer is idling, so the voltage on the windings count is equal to the EMF. Calculate the coefficient**of transformation**according to the formula: k=ε1/ε2=220/55=4.5

Find the coefficient

**of transformation of the**working of the transformer when the secondary winding is attached to the user. Calculate it by dividing the current in the primary winding I1, the current I2 in the secondary winding. The current measure, adding sequentially windings tester, switched to the operation mode of the ammeter: k=I1/I2.Note

Transformer connect only to AC power source, otherwise it will not work and can deteriorate.

# Advice 2: How to calculate transformer

**A transformer**is an electrical device that converts one AC voltage to another, for example from 220 V to 12 V. is step down transformer. The simplest transformer consists of a magnetic core and a wound on it windings: primary and secondary. The primary winding is supplied an alternating voltage, for example 220 volts from the mains, while the secondary coil through inductive coupling creates a different AC voltage. Output voltage depends on the difference of turns of the primary and secondary windings.

Instruction

1

Calculation of the primitive of the W-shaped transformer is best illustrated by example. Suppose you need to calculate the transformer parameters: mains voltage U1=220; output voltage (the voltage at the secondary winding) U2=12V; load current i2=0,5 A. First, determine the power output: P2=U2*i2=12*0,5=6W. For such power you can take a magnetic core section of about four square centimeter (S=4)

2

Next, calculate the number of turns for one volt. For the W-shaped transformer is the formula:=50/S=50/4=12.5 turns per volt.

3

Then, calculate the number of turns of the primary winding: W1=U1*K=220*12,5=2750 turns. And the number of turns of the secondary winding is: W2=U2*K=12*12,5=150 turns.

4

After that, determine the current in the primary winding: i1=(1,1*P2)/U1=(1,1*6)/220=30mA. And then will be able to calculate the diameter of the wire of the primary winding without insulation. The fact that the maximum current for copper wire is 5 ampere per square millimeter, therefore: d1=5A/(1/i1)=5A/(1/0,03 A)=0.15 mm.

5

And last, calculate the diameter of the wire of the secondary winding according to the formula d2=0,025*the square root of i2, the i2 value in this formula, substitute in milliamperes: d2=0,025*22,4=0,56 mm.

Useful advice

Measure the wire diameter on the other hand, it is possible and without the use of precision measuring instruments. Wrap tightly measured the wire on a pencil, measure one inch of the winding and dividing it by the number of turns you will get the diameter of the wire.

# Advice 3: How to calculate the flexibility ratio

On financial stability, we can conclude, knowing about the extent of its dependence on borrowed funds, the ability to maneuver their own capital. This information is important for the owners of the company, its investors, and counterparties (buyers of finished products and raw material suppliers).

Instruction

1

In the analysis of financial stability, you can calculate the coefficient of maneuverability on equity. He characterizes the share of sources of own funds located in a mobile form. The flexibility ratio shows what portion of working capital engaged in circulation, and what is capitalized. Thus working capital in a mobile form, the company is free to maneuver.

2

To calculate the flexibility ratio use the following formula:

Km = SOS/SK, where

SOS working capital;

SK – equity.

In other words, the flexibility ratio is the ratio of own circulating capital of the enterprise to private sources of funding. The recommended value for this indicator is 0.5 or higher. Its value depends on the type of activity of the enterprise. In asset-intensive industries to its normal level, usually below, than material-intensive.

Km = SOS/SK, where

SOS working capital;

SK – equity.

In other words, the flexibility ratio is the ratio of own circulating capital of the enterprise to private sources of funding. The recommended value for this indicator is 0.5 or higher. Its value depends on the type of activity of the enterprise. In asset-intensive industries to its normal level, usually below, than material-intensive.

3

The amount of equity capital you can see in the third section of the liabilities side of the balance sheet. With regard to the level of working capital, it is a calculated value. You can find one of clubusacasino:

1) SOS = SK ISLANDS, where

SK – equity enterprises;

VA – non-current assets.

2) COC = OA – KO, where

OA – floating assets;

CO – current liabilities of the company.

The indicator defines the share of capital which goes to funding its current operations (the formation of current assets).

1) SOS = SK ISLANDS, where

SK – equity enterprises;

VA – non-current assets.

2) COC = OA – KO, where

OA – floating assets;

CO – current liabilities of the company.

The indicator defines the share of capital which goes to funding its current operations (the formation of current assets).

4

You have to consider that the dynamics of the flexibility ratio needs to increase. However, its rapid growth is testimony to the normal development of the enterprise. This is due to the fact that the increase in this ratio is possible with the growth of its own working capital or by reducing their own sources of the enterprise. So, the sharp increase of this indicator will automatically trigger a decrease in others, for example, the coefficient of autonomy, indicating an increasing dependence of the enterprise from creditors.