Advice 1: Why 500 days program was never adopted

The program "500 days" was an attempt to smoothly transition from a planned economy to a market economy, maintaining strong links between the economic units of the disintegrating Soviet Union. However, the program was not implemented for objective reasons.
Why 500 days program was never adopted

The essence of the program "500 days"



August 30, 1990 the initiative group of economists in the person of S. Shatalin, Yavlinsky, N. Petrakov, Mikhail Zadornov and other have created the document, the main idea of which was the preservation of the Soviet Union republics in the soft entry into the free market and granting them sovereignty. He proposed a four-phase transformation programme:

Stage 1. During the first 100 days (from October 1990) involves the privatization of state land and real estate, incorporation of companies and establishment of a reserve banking system;
Stage 2. In the next 150 days would occur liberalization of prices — the state is moving away from price controls, it helps to eliminate the obsolete state apparatus;
Stage 3. Another 150 days on the background of privatization, the free circulation of goods in the market and price liberalization should be a stabilization of the market, filling the state budget and increase convertibility of the ruble;
Stage 4. In the last 100 days of all the previous steps should lead to economic recovery, the advent of effective owners and a complete restructuring of government agencies. By 18 February 1992 this programme was to be completed.

So, the creators of the program planned for 500 days to lay the foundations of a market economy. They understood that in such a short time is impossible to turn the sluggish economy of the vast country face to market therefore created a very mild variant of reform at the expense of public, not private resources. Instead, Soviet citizens experienced shock therapy. And there were several reasons.

The reasons for the failure of the program "500 days"



1. The inconsistency of political and economic action. Not realizing the necessity of implementing urgent reforms, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR delayed the discussion of the program, resulting in all scheduled before the end of 1990, the event was postponed. Instead of starting with the financial recovery, the government has carried out price reform, in the end, the transition to the market did not go through the stabilization of the ruble and through hyperinflation.

2. The destruction of the Federal government. The lack of unity in the actions of the RSFSR and other Soviet republics resulted in the fact that to implement the program with the participation of all economic entities. Republic took the course for office and in fact boycotted the reforms and the creation of new economic Union, which would become a full replacement of economic relations between parts of the USSR, not giving necessary information about the real situation in the country. As a result, the economists were not able to develop the right stabilization measures. To implement the reform program "500 days" was only possible with the unanimous participation of all republics.

3. The omission of the moment. The growth of the crisis tendencies against inaction of the country's leadership brought the economy to the point of no return — the situation dictates the need for decisive action. That is why even the adoption of the program had not saved the economy — a time of gradual reforms had been lost.

So, the parade of sovereignties, vacation prices, severe inflation, the opposition political forces — is not allowed to implement a soft transition from a planned to a market economy and to create strong ties between the republics. The result is required emergency resuscitation of the economy, which he called shock therapy. However, some of the developments of the program "500 days" was the basis for further reforms.

Advice 2: What is the point of no return

You can often hear the phrase that the point of no return is passed. This term is used not only in everyday life but also in nuclear physics and even aviation. As it is necessary to understand this expression, and in what situations it is used?
What is the point of no return
Instruction
1
There comes a situation when no one can influence the situation. The events begin to develop so rapidly that the person is not able to manage them, and often understands that any action will be useless.
2
There is a certain moment in communication when the relationship becomes impossible. A feeling that all the good that people can give each other, they have done this and lost interest for further communication. Nothing else is common. A crisis of relations in which it is not possible to change anything. When loved ones leave, knowing that their relationship had no future.
3
A certain phrase or event becomes the last straw to make responsible decisions and bad decisions. A person comes to the conclusion that the current situation does not suit him. At one point he realizes that he does not want to change anything or to forgive and especially to take any actions for improvement. He was disappointed.
4
There comes a time in life when his actions become irreversible. The chain of events in which he participated, has led man into a situation from which no exit and no way back.
5
A man consciously decides to break all relationships and completely change your life. Saying that "all bridges burned" and "passed the point of no return" , it is assumed dislike of specific events and the reluctance to return to this situation. This is the part of life that I wish to forget. When a person gets into bad company and becomes an accomplice of illegal actions, he realizes that he doesn't let go. The only way to escape: to get as far away where he will not find, but he can start a new life.
6
The situation is completely exhausted. Human model behavior or views on life were so disastrous or ineffective, that he decides never to do and chooses other tactics. For example, when a person begins a health problem, he can give up bad habits and start to follow a healthy lifestyle.
Note
The point of no return in nuclear physics, mean the arrival of a certain moment of the reaction, when an irreversible process: the reaction cannot change and cannot be stopped.

In aviation the term "point of no return" is used when the aircraft is at such a distance that fuel only enough to fly to the destination, without deviating from the route. When deteriorating weather conditions and the need to change the route on Board to understand what the point of no return is passed and the aircraft is unable to fly to an alternate airport or return to airport of departure.
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