The construction of the cellar is very responsible procedure, which requires certain skills. Building cellar, first and foremost, we must remember that this is an important utility room is under ground, this means that the walls and ceiling should be raised and pinned in the most reliable manner.

If the cellar walls it is possible to build a conventional method using, for example, classic masonry and reinforcing it with all sorts of props, the construction of the ceiling (ceiling) of the cellar requires a special approach. It is the quality of the overlap depends on the life of each who descends into the cellar.

The construction of the ceiling of the cellar. The first stage

Once the walls in the cellar are built and secured, and the floor is securely concreted and insulated against the ingress groundwater, it is possible to proceed with the construction of the ceiling.

The first thing you need to build the basis for future reinforcement of the slab. For these purposes it is necessary to use only those materials, which will be sufficient strength to withstand the weight of heavy concrete slab. Reliable reinforcement can be, for example, with a metal water pipe or long metal rods. If the cellar is rather large and its length or width more than 3 meters, for strength design should use an additional element – the beam, which is laid on top of the walls of the cellar.

Reinforcing the Foundation should be done in the form of a grid. For this it is necessary to lay pipe or rods crosswise, so that the grid cell was no more than 10-15 centimeters on one side. Between them the reinforcing material is necessary to seal the wire or to carry out welding work. If the strength of the structure were used additional beam, the rebar should be attached or welded to it.

The second stage. The formwork and pouring concrete

Once a reliable basis for future reinforcement of the slab is erected, should make the formwork that will hold the liquid concrete until it is completely dry.

The best formwork for this type of work – strong plywood sheets, attached to the bottom of the rebar around the perimeter of the basement. Attach the plywood to reinforcing the basis of best thick wire that is put in a pre-drilled hole. Before pouring concrete, the plywood sheets of the formwork necessary to support the bottom of the wooden bars.

Concrete to fill the ceiling of the basement, you can knead by standard techniques: for 100 kg of cement grade M300 or M400 need 300 kg of sand and 400 kg of crushed stone or gravel. For the manufacture of concrete mix will be enough small concrete mixer.

The formwork can be removed within two days after pouring the concrete. After drying the concrete slab (3-4 weeks) on top of it to fill a layer of earth or sand.