Advice 1: How to concrete the ceiling of the cellar

It just so happened that the cellar has become an integral part of any country economy, because the underground room is the best place for long storage of vegetables, cans with all sorts of conserves, barrels with sauerkraut and pickles.
The construction of the ceiling of the cellar
The construction of the cellar is very responsible procedure, which requires certain skills. Building cellar, first and foremost, we must remember that this is an important utility room is under ground, this means that the walls and ceiling should be raised and pinned in the most reliable manner.

If the cellar walls it is possible to build a conventional method using, for example, classic masonry and reinforcing it with all sorts of props, the construction of the ceiling (ceiling) of the cellar requires a special approach. It is the quality of the overlap depends on the life of each who descends into the cellar.

The construction of the ceiling of the cellar. The first stage



Once the walls in the cellar are built and secured, and the floor is securely concreted and insulated against the ingress groundwater, it is possible to proceed with the construction of the ceiling.

The first thing you need to build the basis for future reinforcement of the slab. For these purposes it is necessary to use only those materials, which will be sufficient strength to withstand the weight of heavy concrete slab. Reliable reinforcement can be, for example, with a metal water pipe or long metal rods. If the cellar is rather large and its length or width more than 3 meters, for strength design should use an additional element – the beam, which is laid on top of the walls of the cellar.

Reinforcing the Foundation should be done in the form of a grid. For this it is necessary to lay pipe or rods crosswise, so that the grid cell was no more than 10-15 centimeters on one side. Between them the reinforcing material is necessary to seal the wire or to carry out welding work. If the strength of the structure were used additional beam, the rebar should be attached or welded to it.

The second stage. The formwork and pouring concrete



Once a reliable basis for future reinforcement of the slab is erected, should make the formwork that will hold the liquid concrete until it is completely dry.

The best formwork for this type of work – strong plywood sheets, attached to the bottom of the rebar around the perimeter of the basement. Attach the plywood to reinforcing the basis of best thick wire that is put in a pre-drilled hole. Before pouring concrete, the plywood sheets of the formwork necessary to support the bottom of the wooden bars.

Concrete to fill the ceiling of the basement, you can knead by standard techniques: for 100 kg of cement grade M300 or M400 need 300 kg of sand and 400 kg of crushed stone or gravel. For the manufacture of concrete mix will be enough small concrete mixer.

The formwork can be removed within two days after pouring the concrete. After drying the concrete slab (3-4 weeks) on top of it to fill a layer of earth or sand.

Advice 2: How to make the overlap of the cellar

There are two versions of events during the construction of the cellar. This can be a stand-alone facility – separate detached from the house, and maybe a cellar inside the house – under the floor. Of course, the second option envisaged at the initial stage of construction of the country house, when laying the Foundation.
The ceiling of the cellar must be solid and thorough

The pit and the floor


After determining the place to begin the digging of the trench. It should be done with the slopes. Their bias depends on the structure of the soil. If the soil is a sandy – slope is steeper.

The finished pit is left for a few days. First of all, in order to see if we are at the bottom of the water. Also during this time, the trench will settle and take shape. You can then concrete. First floor. You can pour concrete, and you can arrange a mud floor. On the bottom is filled with gravel, impregnated with bitumen, not less than 20 cm Then 10 cm of clay with crushed gravel.

If the occurrence of the precarious waters or the soil at the site is sandy, it is better to do the concrete floor. It will consist of a sand cushion of 20 cm in height, reinforcing mesh on top of the sand cushion, which is poured concrete layer 20 see also Reinforcement mesh must not lie on the sand, and must be located within a concrete screed. To do this, under it you need to put on the sand and large stones to raise it 10 cm from the layer of sand and then pour concrete.

The device walls


When the floor is ready and completely dry, proceed to the walls. Can put a wall with brick or booth. You can also concrete. If concrete, it is necessary for the Foundation to install the formwork. The formwork is made of wood. The space between the concrete layer and earth wall is filled with sand.

The floor and the ceiling


Now overlap. You can buy the plates or make them yourself. In prepared formwork fit reinforced mesh (0.8 cm wire thickness, a cell size of 10x10 cm). Under the mesh also enclose the stones to fill after she was inside the concrete. Pour. When the concrete hardens completely (may need, depending on the weather, from three days to a week), the formwork should be removed and the cover overlapping the roofing material. Top – a layer of expanded clay. On top of expanded clay – a layer of soil.

For the cellar, located in the house under the floor of the roofing material need two coats, and over – the overlap of the timber or the coating of boards treated with antiseptic. It will not allow heat to enter your home in a cool place storage of vegetables.

It remains to build a sealed (preferably metal) hatch and ladder for descent. You can make and wooden door with granary castle. Stairs also can be metal and wooden. Or even in the wall of the pit can cut down the ready stage and concreted them.

Advice 3: How to get rid of condensation on the ceiling

Condensation on the ceiling is most often formed in areas with high humidity, and where insufficient ventilation and air conditioning. A large build-up of condensation is typical for basements and cellars.
How to get rid of condensation on the ceiling
You will need
  • - heat insulation materials;
  • - umbrella of galvanized iron;
  • - plastic film;
  • - plastic pipes;
  • - a match.
Instruction
1
Check the operation of the ventilation system. Normal air is one to two cellar volume per hour. If the basement air is not stagnant, there is no characteristic smell of damp and mould, ventilation channels are working fine.
2
Check the insulating layer of the ceiling for damage. If the ventilation system is working properly, but on surfaces as condensation water, so the room is rather cold. Take measures to restore damaged insulation.
3
Use as heat insulating materials, those building materials, which are characterized by the ability to absorb the maximum amount of excess moisture and fast to dry. To insulate the ceiling, expanded clay, pre-sifted brick fight, or forest moss – all of these materials are inherent to the described qualities. If the room is too cold, it is desirable to equip the thermal insulation on the surfaces of the walls.
4
Equip the system for draining the condensate from the premises. To do this, arrange the groove of the plastic tubes, which accumulated on the ceiling the moisture will drain to a rainwater pit. On top of the plastic chute facing the street, set special umbrella made of galvanized iron or close the inlet of the plastic film. For the device the chute can be used sewer plastic pipe and components.
5
Clear the area for gas content, as the concentration of carbon dioxide in excess of 10 percent is considered dangerous for the human body. To do this, light an ordinary match. If it does not light up, it is a sign of accumulation of carbon dioxide. Thoroughly ventilate the room.
Note
Annually conduct fumigation in the cellar. To do this, use the whitewash with the addition of copper sulfate. Use the solution immediately after preparation, because its efficiency is significantly higher.
Useful advice
The ventilation system of basements and cellars includes two channel – inlets and exhaust. If ventilation is limited to just one channel, for normal functioning it needs to be equipped with metrolinien.
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