The constancy of temperature of the body is supported through small blood vessels, which regulates the Central nervous system. From the surface of the body thermoreceptors continuously send to the brain impulses about ambient temperature. After analysis of these impulses the brain sends a signal to the peripheral blood vessels to "order" them to narrow or to expand. The enlargement of the vessels of the body blood flow increases and the body temperature rises, and the contraction decreases. This process of regulation is continuous and does not depend on the will of man.
Surface body temperature, i.e. one that is measured on the skin surface, OK is 36.6 C. under this temperature into approximately 1 cm to Measure the surface temperature needed in the place folds, the most convenient place – the axillary region. To determine the temperature in the knee or elbow when maximally flexed joint.
In the deeper layers of the body temperature is normal to 37.0 C. this phenomenon is Due to the large amount of blood supply and various physiological processes. For example, the basal temperature varies throughout the menstrual cycle in the ovulation period falls below 36 C, and then rises to 36.8 C. When measuring oral temperature range standards to 37.0 C.
Normal body temperature the body is easier to maintain in a comfortable environment. Such conditions include a temperature of 25-26C. If the ambient temperature is much higher than comfortable range, the body has to actively involve the sweat glands. The evaporation of sweat from the skin and cools the body temperature normalizes. In a cold climate the body maintains normal temperature through active cleavage of energy-saving reserves (subcutaneous fat).
Many pathological processes in the body provoke changes in body temperature. Superficial low-grade fever (37.0-38.0 C) evidence of chronic inflammation (chronic bronchitis, adnexitis, infection with the human immunodeficiency virus) or moderate inflammation (gastritis, arthritis, etc.). Often the violation of thermoregulation associated with inhibition or overstimulation of the Central nervous system.
A sharp increase in temperature more than 38.0 C provide acute inflammatory processes – pneumonia, meningitis, encephalitis, etc., as well as viral diseases of the upper respiratory tract. With the increase in temperature, the body tries to create unfavorable conditions for the life of pathogens. Many hormones of inflammation and antibodies to pathogens are also formed only at temperatures above 38.5 C.