Latin, or Latin – one of the oldest Indo-European languages that had a writing system. He appeared at the peoples of ancient Italy in the second Millennium before our era, supplanted the other languages spoken by the Italians, and became a major in the Western Mediterranean. The greatest flowering of the language achieved in the first century BC, when began the development of the so-called classical Latin, the literary language in which he wrote Cicero, Horace, Virgil, Ovid. Latin has evolved simultaneously with the development of Rome and his formation as the largest country on the Mediterranean sea.
Further, this language has experienced periods of postclassic and late Latin, which were already similarities with a new Latin-based languages. In the fourth century formed a medieval Latin, which was heavily influenced by Christianity. In the Latin translation of the Bible was translated, and since then it has become a sacred language. All the theological writings were written on it. The figures of the Renaissance also used Latin for writing their papers: on it wrote Leonardo da Vinci, Petrarch, Boccaccio.
Latin is a dead language
The Latin language gradually disappeared from the speech of people in the middle Ages more and more often as a spoken language was used local dialect, but lived in Latin religious texts, scientific treatises, biographies and other works. The rules of pronunciation was forgotten, the grammar is slightly changed, but the Latin language lived.
Officially a dead language it can be called from the VI century, after the fall of the Roman Empire, when they began to blossom barbarian States and Latin gradually fell out of everyday use. Dead language linguists call language, which doesn't exist in everyday life, is not used in live oral communication, and exists in the form of written records. If there is no person who speaks the language as a mother tongue, the language is considered dead.
But Latin is a dead language special, which can be called such a stretch. The fact that it is still actively used in many spheres of life. Latin is widely applied in medicine and biology, and other Sciences, but even in ordinary life, people still use selected Proverbs and sayings in Latin.
In addition, the Latin language is widely used by the Catholic Church, it is the official language of the Vatican, the Holy see and order of Malta.
Advice 2: How to read Latin
Quite difficult to learn to read Latin, just because it's an extinct language that is now used in the scientific community, encyclopedias. However, students of language majors must also to master it at a good level. But even if you don't belong to the circle of scientists or students, you also have a chance to learn to read Latin.
You will need
- - Internet;
- - the teacher.
Start with learning the basics of the Latin language, namely, the alphabet and phonetic rules. Go to the website http://latinista.tk/doca/phonetica.htm. You will be presented with all the features of reading vowels and consonants, and also different exceptions that should also be considered. Read everything carefully and make notes in the workbook to quickly come to understand.
Start to learn the same way and the lexical structure of the Latin language. Remember that this language is already more than 1 thousand years is not used in everyday communication, and contains only such words as "sailor", "field", "oceans", "Senator" etc In it, you will not find modern expressions like "Hello, how are you?" etc. Click on the link http://latinista.tk/vocabularium.htm. You will see a small list of key words that you can read and remember the values if you need them. Walk through each word, following the rules of phonetics that you have already studied. For example, the word ratio is read in Russian as "rational".
Review the information about verbs and grammar. Keep in mind the time that the Latin is very similar to the French language in terms of conjugation and tenses. The only way to remember all this stuff – a lot of hard to read. Now that you know the basics of phonetics and a little practice, continue to improve. On the resource latinpro.info/latin_texts.php you can find a collection of different texts of average difficulty.
Read texts as often as possible. Gradually you get used to the lack of personal pronouns, complex and long endings of the syntactic structures. Break each text into several fragments and read them many times. So you quickly adapt to all the features of Latin.
Ask the person who knows the Latin language, test your skills. Despite the availability of regulations on the Internet, you can't always be sure that you read absolutely right. Only an experienced teacher can correct you. Of course, it all depends on the goal of learning Latin. But whatever it was, it is best if you listen to the linguist and correct pronunciation. You will be able to do without it.
Advice 3: In which language is written the Bible
The Bible is the most common book on earth, translated into 2,500 of the world's languages. And what language it was written? How did humans get a chance to read it in your native language?
The Bible is considered the greatest book of all time on the basis of its antiquity and importance as a literary masterpiece and unsurpassed importance for all mankind. Today the Bible is translated into more than 2,500 languages, and the number of publications exceeded 5 billion copies, making it the most popular book in modern society. However, the current edition of the Holy Scriptures represent a later translation from the original languages in which it was created.
The Bible began to be written 3,500 years ago. Its main part (the old Testament) was written in Hebrew. The only exceptions are several separate parts, created in the Aramaic dialect. This circumstance was caused by the prolonged stay of the Hebrews in the Babylonian captivity (6th century BC), where their culture was influenced by the local language.
The conquest of Alexander the great caused the spreading of Greek culture and the middle East. Under the powerful influence of Hellenism hundreds of thousands of Jews, born outside of their homeland of Israel gradually forgot their native language, adopting the Greek (Koine). Not to allow people to move away from the original faith, the Jewish teachers made it a goal to translate the old Testament into Greek. So, to the 2nd century BC appeared the first Greek translation of the old Testament known as the Septuagint. Later this translation was actively used by Christian preachers who carried the word of Christ to all corners of the Roman Empire.
Emerged in the 1st century Christianity became the basis for the appearance of the second part of the Bible – New Testament. Subject to the availability of the main international languages – Greek – all of his books have also been written in a given language, Koine. However, historians have reason to believe that the very first book of the New Testament, the gospel of Matthew was originally written in Hebrew. The existence of Greek translations of the old and New Testaments provided a unique opportunity to a huge number of people living in different parts of the Roman Empire, to the ability to read the full Bible.
In the cultural-historical laws revealed the need for another translation of the Bible into other languages. The Greek language gradually became obsolete, giving place to a Latin. Began to appear new translations, of which the most famous translation of the Vulgate (in Latin means "a public"). Its author was the theologian Jerome, who presented his work on light around 405 BC Revised in 1592 version of the Vulgate became the official translation of the Roman Catholic Church.
The development of society and the formation of new States led to the gradual appearance of new translations of the Bible into other languages. The era of navigation, which allowed us to access previously unknown in the country, has enabled the development of the missionary movement. This, in turn, demanded new efforts to translate the Scriptures into the languages spoken by the inhabitants of a distant territory. Special impetus in this direction was the development of printing. The first printed Bible, "the Gutenberg Bible", was released in 1456, Since copies of the Scriptures, translated into the different languages of the peoples of the world began to come to light with increasing progression. At the moment, the Bible is fully or partially available to read 90% of the world population.