Advice 1: Philosophy and mythology: similarities and differences

Mythology and philosophy are two distinct forms of creation, two types of worldview. The emerging philosophy borrowed from the mythology of the main issues, formulate them in a more clear form.
Philosophy and mythology: similarities and differences

The origin of philosophy, its relationship to mythology

Myths are ancient tales about fantastic creatures, heroes and gods, at the same time, is a collection of views of people and their beliefs. For ancient human mythology was not a fairy tale, giving human qualities to natural phenomena or animals, she helped the man navigate the world, was a kind of practical guidance.

Mythology is a way of understanding the world characteristic of earlier stages of social development, oldest type of worldview. In mythology there is almost no rational beginning. When there is doubt, conjecture, and logical analysis of mythological consciousness is destroyed and in its place is emerging a philosophy.

The distinctive features of the mythological way of understanding the philosophical

Mythological cognition is characterized by the inability to separate man from nature, very often the natural forms give human traits, and fragments of the space obselete. One of the varieties of mythology, animism is associated with the animation of inanimate nature. Fetishism is another type of mythology, when things or elements attribute supernatural properties, totemism endows animals with supernatural abilities.

Unlike mythology, philosophy brings to the fore logical analysis, conclusions, evidence, and generalizations. It reflects the growing society the need to understand the world and its evaluation from the standpoint of reason and knowledge. Gradually logical analysis began to displace the fantastic invention, to replace the mythological worldview it's philosophical.

Ancient Greek philosophy and mythology

There is a clear link between ancient Greek philosophy and mythology, which is typical not only for the Milesian school, but for later philosophical doctrines of Elea, the Pythagoreans and Plato. Myth was the first attempt to answer the question: what, how and why arose everything that exists in the world. In other words, in the ancient Greek texts of the mythological nature of accumulated knowledge and made the first attempts to explain the origin of the world.

Mythology has created some typical structures that have underpinned the nascent Greek philosophy. Her birth was an integral part of the cultural upheaval in Ancient Greece. Philosophy has absorbed the most valuable achievements of a culture and gradually transformed into independent spiritual realm, which arose science.

Advice 2: Philosophy and science: similarities and differences

Specialization in science – the phenomenon is relatively young by historical standards. Analyzing the history of science from ancient times, it is easy to verify that all of science – from physics to psychology – grow from the same root, and the root of this philosophy.
Ancient philosophers in the picture of Raphael Santi
Talking about scientists of the Ancient world, they are often collectively referred to as philosophers. It does not contradict the fact that their works present ideas that from a modern point of view can be attributed to physics (the idea of Democritus about atoms), psychology (a treatise of Aristotle (On the soul), etc. – these ideas are in any case distinguished by the universality of Outlook. This applies even to those ancient scholars, which recognizes a kind of scientific specialization. For example, the Pythagoras referred to as math, but even he was looking for in the numeric proportions of universal laws of the world. That is why he was able to come so naturally to spread mathematical ideas in the area of musicology. Similarly, Plato tried to build a model of an ideal society on the basis of their cosmological ideas.

This limits the generalization were characteristic of philosophy in all ages of its existence, including the present. But if in antiquity it included the rudiments of all future Sciences, at the present time, these "seeds" have long germinated and grown into something independent that makes you raise the question about the relationship of philosophy with other Sciences.

Philosophers give different answers to this question. Some consider philosophy as the basis of all Sciences, which aims to create a methodological basis to determine the direction of the scientific approach to the world.

According to another approach, the philosophy is one of science, but it has a specific categorical apparatus and methodology.
Finally, the third view is that philosophy is not a science at all, but rather a different way of understanding the world.
And philosophy and science explore the world, establishing the objective facts and generalizing them. In the course of the generalization displays certain laws. It is the presence of laws is the main feature of science that distinguishes it from the field of knowledge. There are laws and in philosophy – in particular, the three laws of dialectics.

But the level of generalization of facts in science and in philosophy is different. Any science explores a certain aspect of the universe, the concrete level of existence of matter, therefore, the laws established by science, cannot be applied to another subject of study. For example, it is impossible to consider the development of society from the point of view of biological laws (such attempt was made, but it has always led to the emergence of highly dubious ideas such as social Darwinism). Philosophical laws are universal. For example, the Hegelian law of unity and struggle of opposites applies to the structure of the atom in physics, and to sexual reproduction in biology.

The basis of science is experiment. It set out the objective facts. In the philosophy of experiment is impossible because of the limits of generality of its subject of study. By studying the most General laws of world existence, the philosopher is unable to allocate a specific object for the experiment, so the philosophical doctrine may not always be reproduced in practice.
Thus, the similarities of philosophy and science is evident. Like science, philosophy, establishes the facts and laws and sistematizirovat knowledge about the world. The difference lies in the degree of connection between scientific and philosophical theories with specific facts and practices. In philosophy, this relationship is more indirect in nature than in science.

Advice 3: The difference and similarities of prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Types of cell are called prokaryotes, ancient organisms. Its name they received because of their lack of cell nucleus. Eukaryotes - cells containing a nucleus.
The difference and similarities of prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Prokaryotes are United in one Kingdom - Drobinki. To this Kingdom also includes blue-green algae and bacteria.

Prokaryotic cells are much less eukaryotic. Their size does not exceed typically 10 microns.

Circular DNA in prokaryotes is located in the center of the cell and does not have a shell. It is located in the cytoplasm. Eukaryotes, on the contrary, DNA stored in the nucleus, which is absent in their predecessors.

Eukaryotes and prokaryotes outside covered with plasma membrane. In prokaryote cells missing EPS - endoplasmic reticulum, plastids, mitohondrii, lysosomes and the Golgi complex. The function of these membrane organelles perform mesosoma.

Eukaryotes typically are aerobic. They use oxygen in energy metabolism. Prokaryotes, by contrast, are anaerobic and oxygen is harmful.

Prokaryotic cells reproduce asexually. In other words, they share. Their DNA doubles and the cell divides in half in the transverse plane. Such cells are able to divide every 20 minutes, but it is only in favorable conditions, which can not be.

Prokaryotes also do not have the digestive vacuoles, are not capable of mitosis and meiosis and gametes.

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