# Advice 1: Growth standards and birth weight of children

Growth standards and birth weight of children is average established by the world health organization (who), on the basis of the estimated physical development of infants. Until discharge from the hospital height, weight and other parameters of child development are monitored by the paediatrician.

## Growth standards and birth weight of children

Growth standards and birth weight, set by who, take into account the sex of the baby: for boys and girls they are different. For baby girls average weight is 3.2 kg and the lower limit of the weight for girls is 2.8 kg and the upper boundary of the normal range is considered to be weight 3,7 kg.

For male newborns, the mean value of norms of weight equal 3.3 kg. weight in the range of 2.9–3.9 kg is considered normal.
If the deviation of weights from these thresholds reaches 400-500 g, the pediatrician may suspect the presence of developmental disorders and to appoint additional examination of the newborn.

The rate of growth of baby girls, according to who, amount to 47.3–51 cm, and the average value of 49.1 cm For boys is considered normal growth from 48 to 51.8 cm the Average rate of growth for newborn boys is a 49.9 cm

It is important to note that all the rules are averaged. It is impossible to obtain an adequate assessment of the physical development of the child simply by comparing the height and weight of the newborn with the who indicators. As each child has individual characteristics of development, a deviation of the weight or growth of the newborn from the rules who is not always a sign any violations.

According to Russian pediatricians, the rate of growth for the full-term newborn child is considered to be an indicator in the range from 46 to 56 cm, and normal weight ranges from 2.6 to 4 kg. As you can see, these numbers differ slightly from data from the who. Therefore, to analyze the growth and weight of the baby should experienced pediatrician: only he will be able to consider all possible factors in the development of the child, to adequately assess its condition and make correct conclusions about the absence or the presence of any violations.

## Rules increase growth and birth weight

A child is considered a newborn in the first four weeks of life. How to change his weight and height in this period?

In the first 3-5 days after birth, the infant loses about 6-8% of body weight. This is a natural process which is caused by physiological factors: the allocation of meconium, umbilical cord drying residue and some loss of liquid. In addition, in the very first days of life the baby receives from the mother of a very small amount of milk.

Already for 4-6 days, the body weight of the newborn starts to increase, and in 7-10 day child's weight is restored. Weight loss, component of more than 5-10%, and a slow recovery of body mass may indicate any congenital disorders or be a sign of a developing infection. By the end of the first month of life the weight gain in the newborn normally is 400 to 800 g.

As for the rule of increase of growth, after the first month of life the baby should grow at least 3-3. 5 cm. But often the growth of the newborn in the first month and sometimes more intense – the baby can grow up to 5-6 cm.

# Advice 2 : How to measure growth

The growth of a person depends on many factors, the most important of which is heredity. Proper nutrition, vitamins and minerals, specific exercise and sports, such as velotta, swimming and basketball, can stimulate growth. To measure growth, you also need right – at a certain time and always with an assistant.
You will need
• Building measuring meter; partner.
Instruction
1
For correct and accurate measurement of growth is not suitable household measuring tape that is used for the measurement of fabrics and different materials, like cloths. You will need the exact construction of the meter, the tape which is made of solid metal tape should not significantly SAG in the air.
2
To measure growth needs to be in a room with normal temperature, preferably not below +16...+20 C. the Measurement is performed in the morning before lunch because in the afternoon people "vtaptyvaetsya" due to the load on the vertebrae. By late evening the human body is usually 2-3 cm shorter than in the morning. During sleep, the vertebrae and the muscles relax, and growth is returning to normal.
3
When measuring growth, you have to stand back to smooth the wall. The feet should not be socks, and the more any shoes. Heels and socks should be kept together between the legs should not be a distance. Heel, maximum convex point of the buttocks, shoulders and upper part of the head should touch the wall. The shoulders should be straightened, the chest is not itahana, the neck should be located strictly vertically, without bending and stooping. The head also can not be lowered, you need to raise your head and look straight ahead.
4
Your partner needs to fix the top point of the head – the crown of the head, excluding hair, because they can add another 1-2 cm visual growth. ON the wall is marked with a pencil, then distance from the floor to the mark is measured by the construction meter.

# Advice 3 : How to measure the growth of the newborn

Children grow quickly, literally by the hour. Moms will understand this very soon when bathing: the bath they begin to feel less and less, and by the end of the first year of a grown up child it is difficult to fit. The growth of the baby is determined first in the hospital, and then the children's clinic at a special height chart, in the supine position. At home the growth of the newborn is also difficult to measure.
Instruction
1
Table move one side close to the wall. Put the baby on the table covered by a diaper. The child's head position so that it fits snugly against the wall. The legs should be straightened and lightly pressed to the table, so they lay smoothly, and the child couldn't bend. Feet should be at right angles. To crown, put a ruler or strap to feet can be applied book, and then measuring tape between them, the distance is measured.
2
After discharge from the hospital attend the monthly clinic, where the doctor will determine the dynamics of the physical development of your child and calculate whether it age. There are various calculation methods - one of them:
- Age;
- Optimal increase in height(in centimeters;
- Optimal weight gain(in grams);1 month (3 - 3.5 cm) - 600g
2 month (3 - 3.5 cm) - 800g
3 month ( 3 - 3.5 cm) - 800g
4 month (2.5 cm) - 750g
5 a month ( 2.5 cm) - 700g
6 month (2.5 cm) - 650g
7 month (1,5 - 2cm) - 600g
8 month (1,5 - 2cm) - 550g
9 month (1,5 - 2cm) - 500g
10 a month (1cm) - 450g
11 month (1cm) - 400g
12 month (1cm) - 350g
Baby's weight should match its growth.
3
Be sure to record the growth of the child at least once a month in a graph, starting with the growth at birth and then monthly figures. The average growth of the newborn is usually equal to 50.5 cm In the first three months the child grows up to 3 cm per month in the next three months by 2.5 cm, in the third quarter of the year, to 1.5 cm, the fourth at 1 cm per month. In one year the growth of the baby needs to be on average 75 cm.
If you wish, you can calculate the approximate future growth of the child. The calculation is based on the growth rates of parents. Fold increase father and mother, and divide the result by two. For girls the figures subtract 5 cm, for boys add 5 see For example: (160 + 190): 2 = 175. Calculation of growth for the boy 175+ 5 cm = 180 cm For girls 175 - 5 cm, it will be 170 cm.

# Advice 4 : How do I know what growth will be in children

To calculate the growth of the child need to know only two numbers: the rise moms and dads. If parents try to know the specific parameters of adult your baby will need his height at the age of 1 year.

## The wisdom of the ages

Each formula has its Creator, but the most popular way of determining the growth of the child had lost contact with its author. However, the algorithm inspires confidence. In order to determine the growth of his son, parents need to put down their growth rates, expressed in centimeters, multiply this amount by 0.54, then from the resulting number to take away is 4.5. The expected growth of the daughters is calculated according to a similar pattern, only the total height of the parent is multiplied by 0.51, and the final result of 7.5 is taken away.

## The Method Of Hawker

Dr. Hawker, working in the clinic with the exotic name "Mayo", have offered their own version of how to determine a child's growth in the future. The essence of the calculation is as follows: the growth of the mother and father (in centimeters) is formed and divided by 2. The result is the average of these numbers. To see the growth of the boy must be added to a 6.4. For girls, conversely, take a 6.4.

## The Method Of Carcosa

Czech scientist V. Karkus put his formula for calculating the child's growth. To determine the growth of the boy must be added to the growth of the mother of 1.08, and then add on the growth of the father and reduce the result by half. The growth of girls is calculated somewhat differently. The growth of the father are multiplied by 0,923, added to the growth of the mother and is also divided in half.

## The range of values

Professor Vladimir Smirnov, as his colleague in the research, the endocrinologist Gleb Gorbunov, your calculation of the growth of the child showed great awareness in this matter. Their formula allows to obtain not a single value but a range between the maximum and minimum height. To know the possible growth of the son it is necessary to summarize the level of their own growth, to increase this amount by 12.5 and divided by 2. Adding to the final 8, you can define the maximum height of the boy, and on the contrary, reducing the total value by 8, will be obtained the minimum value of growth. The growth of the daughters is calculated in a similar way, only the number of 12.5 is not added to the total of the parent growth, and is taken away from him.

Previous versions to define the growth of the child offer a very hypothetical calculations, the results of which moms and dads will learn only the most probable growth of children. Actual figures may differ from the actual in one direction or another. However, there is a popular way to determine what will be the growth of the child in the future. The scheme is as follows: the growth of the child achieved in year 1, increasing by 1 meter (for boys) or 95 cm (for girls).

# Advice 5 : As the baby grows to a year

People who first became parents, I don't know how the growing and developing child. It is important to be aware of any changes of baby: read the necessary information, consult with a pediatrician to ask advice from grandparents.
Instruction
1
At 0-2 months, the child who in the first week after his birth is meaningless ran his eyes around the room, begins to respond to touch, sounds, to distinguish faces, to smile at others.
2
2-4 months baby holds her head, lying on his stomach. He looked carefully at the objects that are around him. He likes bright toys. So you need to hang over the crib and the stroller rattles, baby to beat them with handles.
3
In 5-6 months the child already holds in the arms of any small items (toys, rattles). In any case do not let your baby cheap Chinese things harmful to the body crumbs. Please note: all toys produced in this country, stated "Children over three years."

It is also possible to slowly seat the baby, propped up on all sides with pillows. So, the baby will survey the room from a different angle. But before that, consult a doctor: some children have health problems which make them possible to start at a later age.

5-6-month-old baby is already beginning to speak in syllables, pronouncing "mA", "PA", "BA", etc. the Child tries to taste, so do not be alarmed that he drags into his mouth. It is a normal human reflex.
Also the toddler at this age may begin to crawl. If that happens, do not be afraid, because all children develop differently.
4
In 7-8 months the baby tries to sit up, and that you need him to help in every way. Take it by the handles and slightly pull up.

Also the baby is trying to stand up. At this age, he walks along the crib holding her back. He utters strange sounds. Don't be put off by this, because the baby talking in his own language, trying to convey his emotions and feelings.

The child is sure to hold items, carefully examines them, throws and shifts from one hand to another. He also, finding any little detail, trying otkovyryat her. Make sure that the child doesn't ingest anything. To do this, all buttons, paper clips and other dangerous items must be in the place where the baby will not be able to get.
5
9-10 months, the baby moves around the house, holding onto a support. As soon as he staggers, reaches the wall, leaning against her, Nicole quickly runs to the right place. You're supposed to insert in all outlet special caps, from the tables to remove all of the items that the baby can hurt himself.
6
At 11-12 months, the child walks, able to speak short words (Mama, Baba, Papa, give, on, etc.).
Note
All kids develop differently. For example, if your year-old child will not walk, this does not mean that it lags behind in development. So he is not yet ready.

All children also have different weight, height. It all depends on individual circumstances. Most importantly — every month to be examined by a doctor and carefully monitor the health and development of the baby.
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