Advice 1: Why Germans are called Germans, not the Germans

German old Church Slavonic word, which has no relationship directly to Germany. In addition to Russian, no one calls the people of this country by the Germans. Moreover, in the distant past, the word is used in relation to representatives of other Nations.
Why Germans are called Germans, not the Germans

Who are the Germans

The word "German" is derived from "silent", meaning that one cannot in Russian and the words to say. The fact that foreigners, not knowing the Russian language was still that dumb, so they called them that. For example, in the works of Gogol the Germans call all people of Western origin, including the French and the Swedes.

Gogol himself wrote that "German we call anyone who came from another country" and the country from which came the aliens, called "German land" or "nemetchiny" (it's closer to the Ukrainian language). Gogol sometimes laugh at this word, for example, in his work "Taras Bulba" he's an engineer, a Frenchman came from Nemetchiny. And in the "inspector" the doctor is German, which in Russian does not understand words, and is silent all the time, like he's really dumb.

As in the XIX century, foreigners in Russia were predominantly Germans, this name is so entrenched in the Russian language for all the people of Germany. Interestingly, Kukai Sloboda in Moscow since then called the German settlement, in honor of the fact that these places were inhabited by foreigners. There were representatives of England and Holland, but called it German, because they spoke no Russian.
In the nineteenth century, the word "German" had a dirty connotation, so-called non-Orthodox Europeans, by analogy, as "infidels" was the name of all Muslims.

There is another theory of the origin of the word "German". In the past there was a tribe of the Rus, particularly militancy. Lived the people along the river Nemunas or Nemani. They were called Germans. Later these lands were conquered by the Germanic tribes, and this tribe is also sometimes called a "nemati".

As they call themselves Germans

The word "Germans" was also not invented by the Germans. In Ancient Rome, Germany was called the country, located to the North of the Roman Empire. Since the Romans first came up with the name for this country, and it turned out that it caught on, and now the country is called Germany.
I wonder what the Germans referred to are not related by name, not only in Russia. In France and Spain, the Germans name is Aleman and in Italy they say about them "Tedeschi".

Nevertheless, the Germans themselves call themselves differently – Deutsch (Deutsch). This word is derived from the drevnenemetskoy words, "people, people", which was pronounced as diot. It turns out, originally the Germans called themselves "the people." Similarly, they called all other Nations, for example Brits, Danes and others. Information about this can be found in Latin historical manuscripts.

Advice 2 : Why Germans are called Germans

The word "Germans" came into the Russian language a very long time. This ethnonym of ancient origin and means "mute, not speaking Russian." The word "Germany" is also ancient. But the inhabitants of Germany are called Germans.
The discrepancy between the name of the country and the people inhabiting it, in Russian it sounds very strange
Why it happened so that the Germans called the Russian-speaking people in Germany? This is due to both historical and linguistic reasons.

Language evolves, sometimes inexplicable laws. In the use and consolidation in the language of a word multiple factors are involved. Most often the main Creator of the language is its carrier – people. Official sources, such as documents, Chronicles, and literary works that reflect the result of that creativity.

On the origin of the words "Germans" and "Germany"

By assumption, linguists, the word "German" appeared in the Russian language in the 12th century or earlier. In the documents of Ancient Rus ' is the name found at this time.

At that time, the word Germania had already existed in the Latin language. It took from him the Russian name "Germany". In the works of Roman authors, written in Latin, it can be found already in the 1st century ad. So the Romans called the territory on the other side of the Rhine river, and the tribes living there, Julius Caesar was called Germanus. They are also mentioned by the chronicler Tacitus.

In Russian language the word "Germany" it is only in the 19th century, when one country in Europe comprises several separate principalities.

By the time the word "German" has already managed to gain a foothold in the Russian language. In big cities of Russia and later the Russian Empire there were many foreign visitors from European countries. A large role was played by the policy of Peter the great, aimed at establishing ties with Europe. This, in turn, contributed to more frequent use of the word "German" among the Russian-speaking population.

But why is it subsequently became relevant only to the people of Germany and why Germans are not renamed, as other Nations, to tell very difficult. Perhaps a role was played by the Great Patriotic War, when the meaning of the word "German" acquired a strong negative connotation. Emotionally charged words are well kept in the collective memory of the people.

Who called the Germans

One of the Germanic tribes was called "Nemethy".

The Germans, the Slavs called not only the residents of Germany, but other European Nations: Norwegians, Swedes, and Western Europeans, the Danes. In the Russian language is still preserved, the word "German" to mean "alien". In the 20th century in the environment of Russian-speakers still use the word "German" in relation to the Estonians. But stuck in the Russian language this word in the sense of "people of Germany".

For whom even the Germans – not the Germans

Slavs – not the only one who uses the word "German" to refer to the residents of Germany. It appears the Hungarians, the Ukrainians, the poles, the Czechs, and the Serbs and Croats.

Followed the ancient Roman tradition and the French and the Germans, and even the former residents of Rome Italians.
French-German – Allemand-German – Deutch-Italian – Tedesco.

But it is in Russian language name of the country is not similar to the name of the ethnic group inhabiting it.
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