Distinctive features of the legume family
The legume family consists of two forms: herbaceous and woody. Forms, in turn, are divided into three subfamilies according to the structure of the flower: mymonavie, caesalpinieae and legumes.
Caesalpinieae and mimoseae plants found only in warm climates, and legumes grow around the globe. These include widely known forage and vegetable crops: peas, beans, beans, soybeans, chickpeas, peanuts, alfalfa and clover.
All the representatives of the legumes have the distinctive structure of the fruit – pod. When ripe, the pod reveals one or two seams. Beans are very diverse in shape and size.
The leaves of most members of the legume complex: pinnate or palmate, located in pairs, from one to twenty pairs.
Feature of roots of legumes is the presence of tubers, which are colonies of nitrogen-fixing bacteria penetrating from the ground into the roots and causing the growth of the root system.
Nutritional value of legumes
The role of legumes in human life is very large. Since ancient times the representatives of the food legumes are an integral part of the diet of all peoples.
Nutritional value of legumes, due to their diverse composition: protein, lots of starch, some types of plants are in the fruit vegetable oil.
Peas contains up to 28% protein, lentils – 32%, soybean up to 40% of the total weight. These figures do legumes are a cheap substitute for meat food products. Soy and peanuts manufactured, get the vegetable oil.
Legumes are a source of b vitamins: B1, B2, B6, which have a positive effect on the heart. Fiber in foods has beneficial effects on the intestine and causes the saturation of the organism.
A very important advantage of legumes is they are not accumulating nitrates and toxic substances.
The role of legumes
Fodder, medicinal, technical, melliferous and ornamental crops, also play a very important role in human life. Of forage crops, the volume footprint, a clover - in the first place, then various kinds of alfalfa and camel thorn.
Valuable, and medicinal plants: Cassia (used as laxative), licorice root (raw material for medical industry).
Some tropical species are the source of valuable wood red and dark brown. Many types of legumes secrete gum, which is used in paint and textile industry.
Advice 2 : What crops belong to the legume
Legumes are a special type of crops, which differs from other cereals with high protein content. One of the most famous representatives of the legume is pea, however, this culture is characterized by a much greater variety.
Legumes are a valuable source of vegetable protein, which is widely used in food, both by people and animals. They belong to the family of bipartite and distributed in various parts of the world, since the ability to grow in diverse climates, ranging from arid regions ending mountainous terrain.
Legumes also referred to as bean due to the special shape of their fruits, which commonly have a rounded or oval shape resembling a grain. However, the fruit is a legume commonly larger than that of grain crops as a rule, they are at least 3 inches and can reach 1.5 meters. Most legume seeds are enclosed in a special membrane, called the pod.
Nutritional value of legumes is that at a low enough cost they contain significant amount of protein: on average, 100 grams of legumes accounts for between 22 to 25 grams of protein. This figure is significantly higher than, for example, of grain, 100 grams of which contain 8-13 grams of protein. In addition, 60-70% of the weight of legumes you have on the contained starch, and 1-3% fat.
The types of legumes
Legumes represent one of the most diverse plant species: their population is about 18 thousand species, and a significant portion of them are edible. One of the most common plants belonging to this culture, is soy: it is used both independently and as a component in the manufacture of composite products in the dairy, meat and confectionary industry. Among the other members of their own species soybean is the product with the highest protein content: 100 grams of this culture contain about 35 grams of this valuable substance.
In Russia the most well-known legumes are peas, beans and beans. They are usually harvested by drying and then use in the preparation of soups and main dishes. Also beans and legumes used for the production of canned vegetables. In addition, some types of these crops are also used as fodder plants, and in this case fed to livestock are not only fruits, but other green parts of plants, including the stem and leaves.
However, the diversity of legumes is not confined to this list. So, in recent years, Russian stores began to appear the products in this group, previously little known in the market, for example, chickpeas, rank and lentils. In addition, this category includes the peanut which is considered a nut.