History of the term
March 5, 1946, the cold war – the confrontation between the USSR and the USA in the geopolitical, ideological, economic and military matters. Each side had its allies: the Soviet Union cooperated with Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, China, Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Mongolia and many other countries, and the United States adopted many of the European countries, Japan, Thailand, Israel, Turkey.
Only about a hundred countries participated in this confrontation, which cannot be considered a war in the conventional sense of the word. The standoff was accompanied by an arms race, at certain points in time, situations have occurred that threaten the deployment of this war, but it never came, and in 1991 in connection with disintegration of the USSR the cold war ended.
From the first years of the cold war, countries not involved in this confrontation, called the third world. It was an arena of political action on both sides: NATO and the Warsaw Pact competed for influence in these areas. Although in 1952 the term was first used in its modern sense – as undeveloped, underdeveloped States and territories.
A French scientist has compared the third world with the third estate in the community. And in 1980, the third world countries began to call those that had low income among the population. Although since that time some of those States have managed not only to escape from the third world, but to overtake on the economic development, second, the socialist world and the former States of the developed socialism came into a difficult time.
Third world countries
Today third world countries, according to the terminology of the UN, referred to all developing States – that is, those not to be counted among the developed industrial world. It's pretty subjective: some have a very backward economy – Slovenia, Somalia, Equatorial Guinea, French Guiana, Guatemala, Tahiti, and others have a good level of development – Philippines, Syria, Egypt, Tunisia, Peru.
But all these countries have some common characteristics, which allow to combine them. First, they all have the colonial period in its history – that is ever exciting world powers. The consequences of this time are still reflected in their culture, economy and politics. Secondly, in such countries, despite the well-developed industrial activities with her neighbor pre-industrial types of production. Many sectors of the economy are developed in an unequal degree. Thirdly, the state actively intervenes in the economy to accelerate growth – this process is called statism.
Advice 2: What the cold war
Among the various political and military conflicts of the XX century, stands out a cold war. It lasted for more than 40 years and covered almost all corners of the globe. And to understand the history of the second half of the twentieth century need to find out what this confrontation.
The definition of the cold war
The very expression "cold war" appeared in the second half of the forties, when it became clear that the contradictions between the recent allies in the war against fascism became insurmountable. This definition described the specific situation of confrontation between the socialist bloc and the Western democracies led by the United States.
The cold war was named because of full-scale hostilities between the armies of the USSR and the USA was not conducted. This opposition was accompanied by indirect military conflicts beyond the territory of the USSR and the USA, and the Soviet Union tried to conceal the participation of his troops in such military operations.
The question of the authorship of the term "cold war" is still remains controversial among historians.
The importance during the cold war was propaganda, which involved all media channels. Another method of fighting the opponents was the economic rivalry of the USSR and the United States expanded the circle of its allies by providing substantial financial assistance to other States.
The course of the cold war
The period called the cold war began shortly after the Second world war. Defeating a common enemy, the USSR and the USA lost the need for collaboration that revived the old controversy. The United States has been frightened by the tendency of the establishment of Communist regimes in Europe and Asia.
As a result, in the late forties, Europe was divided into two parts - the Western part of the continent adopted the so-called Marshall plan - economic aid from the United States, and the East moved into the zone of Soviet influence. In Germany the tensions between the former allies in the end was divided into the socialist GDR and the Pro-American West Germany.
The struggle for influence was in Africa - in particular, the Soviet Union managed to establish contacts with the Arab States of the southern Mediterranean, such as Egypt.
In Asia, the conflict between the USA and the USSR for world domination has moved into a military phase. The Korean war ended with the division of the state into Northern and southern parts. Later began the war in Vietnam, which resulted in the defeat of the US and establish the country's socialist government. Also under the influence of the Soviet Union came to China, but not for long - although in China remained in power, the Communist party, the state began to pursue an independent policy by entering into a confrontation with the Soviet Union, and the United States.
In the early sixties the world has never been close to a new world war began the Cuban missile crisis. In the end, Kennedy and Khrushchev were able to negotiate a non-aggression as a conflict of such scale with the use of nuclear weapons could lead to the complete destruction of mankind.
In the early eighties began a period of "détente" - the normalization of Soviet-American relations. However the cold war ended only with the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Advice 3: What country is Tunisia
Tunisia is a small country in Northern Africa, which is famous for its warm hospitality, fascinating history and traditions. In Tunisia , you can explore the Holy temples of the ancient gods, bask under the hot sun of the Sahara, to visit the plantation of date palms and enjoy the spicy scent of Jasmine. Tunisia is a place where you can relax by the sea and sunbathe on the beaches with the Golden fine Sands and live without a care in the hotels of international class.
The Republic of Tunisia is one of the countries of the Arab Maghreb. It is located in the Central part of the Mediterranean basin and are separated by the Sicilian channel. The area of the state is only 164 thousand sq. km Maghreb is often compared to a bird, because the territory of Tunisia is reminiscent of the wing.
The average summer temperature in Tunisia ranges from 22 to 33 degrees, and in winter from +5 to +12. The sea has a direct impact on the climate of Tunisia. Summer in the country is relatively dry, and winters are relatively cool and wet. The high season lasts from late April to early November.
In Tunisia, a very comfortable environment for guests. Friendly and knowledgeable staff creates a friendly atmosphere and will take care of every camper. Clean sea, Sunny weather, effective treatments, reasonable prices – everything has to rest.
Most of the tourists say that Tunisia is a state in which it is possible to visit only once and stop. The main attraction is the ancient Carthage. Local residents seek to reconstruct the city and make the most attractive for tourists. Carthage Salammbo – recognized national monuments. On the streets of Carthage to see the sacred temples, ancient residential houses, the sea port with many ships. From the ruins of the ancient city, the locals have recreated places of amazing beauty. Near the port are located the ancient Shrine to the goddess Tanit – a place where hundreds of tombstones. Carthage – the new administrative center of Africa, where you can find not only majestic buildings and villas, but also such cultural places like theaters and galleries.
Tabarka is a beautiful port where you can ride on the boat, look at the foot of the mountains, admire the dense forests and clean waterfalls. In the ancient Phoenician trading port, tourists have the opportunity to play Golf, diving, underwater fishing, hunting, to visit the annual summer festival of culture and relax in the picturesque places.
Duga is a city that fascinates the extent to which it preserved the story of the Roman era. The arc stands on a hill, representing an architectural monument.
The pride of Tunisia ancient mosaics believe. Since the times of Phoenicians this art was developed, not succumbing to the influence of the Roman Empire. Floors are a huge number of public buildings with murals. The General condition of many of the songs are still great – it seems that they are only slightly burned under the scorching sun.