You will need

- roulette;
- notebook;
- - handle;
- calculator.

Instruction

1

To calculate

**the area of the****coloring**of the floor, multiply the length by the width. This will be**the area of the****painting**. To calculate the amount of paint you need, read the instructions on the packaging from the manufacturer. There always has information about the amount of paint that is specified in square metres. These instructions correspond to the coating on a single layer. If you are going to paint a wooden surface, so that the charge is adequate, treat all painted surfaces with primer or varnish. Then, the specified flow will exactly match the actual flow. When painting the surface in two coats, multiply the calculated**area**of a floor or two.2

To calculate

**the area of****painting**the ceiling, make exactly the same calculation as sex, that is multiply the length by the width. If the ceiling has any additional protrusions or niches, calculate their**area**separately and add to the total area of the painting, multiply the result by two if you want to produce color in two layers.3

If you wish to clean the walls where there are Windows and doors, calculate the total

**area**by multiplying the length of each of the painted wall in the width, add the calculated numbers. Separately calculate**area**of doors and Windows by multiplying length by width, add up the digits and subtract the result from the total area of all the walls.4

To paint the battery and the heating pipes calculate

**the area of the**batteries. To do this, multiply the length by the width, add to the number of 20% if the batteries have a convex shape.5

To calculate

**the area of****painting**of pipe, measure the entire length of the pipe, multiply by the diameter and multiply by two, as the pipes also need to paint on two layers.6

To calculate the square

**painting**the window frames, measure the length of the frames, add all the resulting numbers, and multiply by the width. Separately calculate**area**of window-sill, multiplying length by width. Add the obtained**square**to the square frames. This method calculate all the frames, put the obtained results.Note

Buying paint, always read the area of the color indicated on the label. Paint from different manufacturers may have a different structure, and the area of coloring will vary.

# Advice 2: How to calculate square meters

# Advice 3: How to calculate the area of the walls

For the first time, getting to the repair work, people often ask yourself the question - where to start? The first thing you need to calculate the quantity of materials necessary, and for this to determine what the surface will be repaired. The most important thing is possible to accurately determine the area of the walls, especially if you are going to cover them with tile. Tools which are usually used by professional finishers do not always have at hand the dilettante. But the area of the walls can be measured using any means available.

You will need

- Roulette
- Rake
- Spirit level
- A sheet of paper with a pencil or calculator
- Of stool or ladder

Instruction

1

Put on the wall vertical and horizontal lines. Vertical line guide closer to the corner of the room. To verify the accuracy of the lines with a spirit level. The height of the walls in the room are usually the same, so start with her. Place the ladder closer to the corner of the room and attach zero roulette to the point of intersection of the vertical line of the ceiling. Roulette align with the line. Carefully go down from the ladder, holding the tape measure. View, a division of roulette was in the point of intersection of the vertical line with the floor or baseboard. Record the height.

2

Measure the length of the room. It's best to do on a horizontal line, parallel to the floor or baseboard if it is smooth. Zero mark will align with the corner of the room, lay the tape measure along the line and note the division, which is aligned with the second corner.

3

Similarly, measure and record the width. Find the perimeter of the room, arms folded along the length and width and multiplying the resulting sum by 2. Calculate the wall surface area by multiplying the perimeter of the room multiplied by the height.

Note

If you don't want to Wallpaper all the walls, find only the area needed. The length of wall and multiply by the height, and similarly guide calculation for all other walls.

If the room has a niche, compute separately the area of the walls of the niche and the area of the other walls.

Decide whether to glue the Wallpaper to the ceiling or leave a free stripe on top. Determine what will be the width of this strip and subtract its square from the square walls.

If the room has a niche, compute separately the area of the walls of the niche and the area of the other walls.

Decide whether to glue the Wallpaper to the ceiling or leave a free stripe on top. Determine what will be the width of this strip and subtract its square from the square walls.

Useful advice

Before start measuring, please clean and align the wall.

The height measure together. Combines single zero roulette with the point of intersection of the vertical line and the ceiling, the other looking mark at the intersection with the floor or the baseboard.

If you do not have roulette, you can use a long cord. Tie a knot in it and align it with the point of intersection of angular lines and ceiling. Pull the cord and at the intersection of it with the floor tie the second knot. The distance between the knots can be measured with a regular ruler.

The height measure together. Combines single zero roulette with the point of intersection of the vertical line and the ceiling, the other looking mark at the intersection with the floor or the baseboard.

If you do not have roulette, you can use a long cord. Tie a knot in it and align it with the point of intersection of angular lines and ceiling. Pull the cord and at the intersection of it with the floor tie the second knot. The distance between the knots can be measured with a regular ruler.

# Advice 4: How to calculate total area

Sometimes it is necessary to make calculation of the total area of the apartment. For example, prior to its sale or purchase, because the meter is often specified by construction companies is not entirely true and larger than the actual one or two meters. So what is taken into account in such measurements.

You will need

- meter, Karandash, calculator

Instruction

1

First, calculate

**the area**of all rooms of the apartment, including rooms, kitchen, toilet, corridor and a bathroom. Measure the length and width of the room by the roulette table (on the bottom, that is, on the floor), then multiply, and then, of course add up all the resulting squares. Do not include plinths. The location of a room occupied by, for example, stove or fireplace, non-heating devices (not decoration) in calculating square footage is not included.2

Note that, for example,

**the area of**loggias, balconies, verandas or terraces is not a part of the area of the housing, however, sometimes developers include it in the price of the apartment (the payment ratio should not exceed one second). Measure from wall to fence/wall (measurements on the floor), and the baffle**area**is not included.3

Do the math and add to these to in paragraph 1 to the result

**area**of all premises for commercial and domestic use. This definition includes pantry, niches for built-in cabinets and other ancillary facilities (sauna, facilities for teplogeneratora and other similar).4

Do not include in total

**square**dimensions of the ventilation shaft - like spaces (including elevators) in the amount of paid area are not included.5

In case the house includes a loft (one wall is inclined at an angle of forty-five degrees to the horizon), its calculation is somewhat different. Measure the height of the ceiling. If the ceiling height is from 1.6 to 2.5 meters,

**the area**of the floor surface is included in the total recorded the footage. If you counted that the ceiling, above 2.5 meters, then the payment of such premises must be made with a reduction factor amounting to 0.7.6

Note that in some regions the total

**area**of the apartment may include loggias, balconies, verandas or terraces, but the cost of the latter is calculated with the reduction factor of, for example, in Saint-Petersburg is 0.5 for loggias, 0.3 for balconies and terraces and 0.1 for unheated storage rooms and porches.# Advice 5: How to calculate surface area

The calculation of the area

**of the surface**of the basic stereometric figures provides a single methodology. Is**the area**of the base or bases of the figure, then**the area of**each of the side faces. After this, square added. For prisms and right pyramids there are separate formulas, as for bodies of revolution (cylinder and cone). The area of the sphere is calculated in a different way.You will need

- Line formulas for finding the areas of polygons

Instruction

1

To calculate

**the area****of a surface**of a prism, find**the area**of one of the bases. Use the formula depending on what geometric figure (polygon). Then, find all the side of the base and folded them, will receive its perimeter. Multiplying the perimeter length of one of the side edges (they are equal), calculate**the area of the**lateral**surface**. The area**of the surface**of the prism is equal to the sum of the area of the lateral**surface**and twice the area of the base (because two of them) S=SB+2•In.2

Calculate the area of

**the surface of a**random pyramid is produced by adding up the area of the base and each face. To the right of the pyramid (when it is based on a regular polygon, and the vertex is projected onto the intersection of its diagonals), you can use a special formula.3

Find

**the area**and perimeter of the base of a regular pyramid. Calculate**the area of the**lateral**surface**by multiplying half of the perimeter of the apofema side edge (the height) S= 0,5•P• a. The apofema look like the height of an isosceles triangle, which is the side face of the regular pyramid. Fold the**square**base and the lateral**surface**and get**the area of the**full**surface**.4

To find

**the area of the**full**surface**of circular cylinder, find the sum of its radius and height, which is a segment that connects the centers of the circles which are the bases of the cylinder, and the result is multiply by the radius and number of 6.28, S=6,28•r•(r+h).5

The area

**of the surface**of a circular cone, find the radius using base and forming. For this amount, radius and generatrix (the segment that joins the vertex of a cone with an arbitrary point of the circular base), multiply by the radius and the number 3,14, . S=3,14•r•(r+l).6

To find the area

**of the surface**of the sphere, find its radius. Then**the area**will be equal to the product of the square of the radius by the number of 12.56 S=12,56•r2.# Advice 6: How to calculate square pipe

Imagine that you are going to paint supplied to your home gas pipes. As you need to paint? One or two banks? As a rule, containers of paint, to write, to cover a square calculated is the amount of paint. So, in order to determine exactly how many cans of paint to take, you need to calculate the area of gas pipes.

You will need

- roulette;
- - caliper;
- - strong string;
- calculator.

Instruction

1

To calculate the area of a pipe of circular cross-section find out the length of the pipe in linear metres. Also, the calculation will need the outer diameter of the pipe.

2

Calculate the value of the outer diameter of the gas pipe. You can do it two ways. First method – measure the outer diameter of the gas pipe using a Vernier caliper. To do this, open the lips of this measuring tool and attach it to the pipe so that the pipe was between the jaws of the caliper. Then slide the sponge measuring tool: they should be tightly clasp the gas pipe. Looking at the measuring scale, determine the outer diameter of the pipe. The second method is grasp the tube thick thread. Then measure with tape measure the circumference of the pipe. Substituting value in the formula D = L / PI where L is the length of the circumference of the pipe, PI = 3,14 (PI), calculate the value of the outside diameter of the gas pipe. Translate the resulting figure is in meters.

3

Find the area of the gas pipe using the following formula: S = 2*PI*DMP*R, where PI is the number "PI" (3.14), DMP – gas length of pipe in linear meters, and R is the outer radius of the pipe. Given that the diameter is twice the radius, divide the result of the earlier calculations, the increased outer diameter in 2. Put all required data into the formula and calculate the area of the pipe.

Note

Count each measure several times! One mistake will have a significant impact on the final result.

Useful advice

Due to the fact that the current pipe does not meet the standards of GOST, the use of the indicators compiled in the past, the special tables may give an incorrect result. So don't be lazy all the indicators to cross-check yourself.

# Advice 7: How to calculate the area of a room

Sooner or later there comes a time when you need to do repairs. They say that if you do repairs only in one room, then the number of carries dirt this process is similar to repair a flat. Therefore, it is better to venture on repair of all housing. But whatever you decided to do this, you initially have to calculate the room area and an estimate of the upcoming costs.

Instruction

1

To calculate the area of a room, armed with a long tape measure. Fortunately, measuring the area of most Russian apartments do not cause major difficulties, because they were built on standard projects and all kind of resemble each other. Using a ruler measure the length and width of the room. Record the result in a notebook.

2

If your room lacks any protrusions or, on the contrary, holes in the walls, and shape of the room is a regular rectangle, to calculate area, multiply the resulting measurements to each other. This figure will be the total area of the room.

3

However, if your room is located, for example, part of a closet or in a room with some pillars, then you have to exclude these dimensions from the obtained measurement results. For this additionally calculate the area of each protruding element of the room and subtract it from the total area of the room.

4

Guided by the same principle, calculate the area of all room walls. To exclude the size of door openings and Windows, and also add an additional area of the walls arches such as under radiators. By doing thus, all the necessary measurements, you will get the exact area of the room, all its walls and floors and be able to calculate the amount of Wallpaper, linoleum or other materials you will need for repair.

# Advice 8: How to calculate the damage caused by the accident

When the amount

**of the damage****in***the accident*exceeds 25,000 rubles, participants can make their own decision about contacting or not contacting the insurance company on the spot. But this should at least roughly understand the amount of all damage to the vehicle.You will need

- - netbook/laptop with access to the Internet
- phone/smartphone with Internet access
- - the documents for the car
- - insurance policy

Instruction

1

Log on to the website http://exp-ress.ru/express - it provides services for the assessment of damages in an accident. If you just phone or mobile, use the mobile version: http://m.exp-ress.ru/. To calculate the damage for this service require registration. You will be asked to enter some data for the transaction. If you are not registered, then the calculation can only be obtained for a fee.

2

Select "Region of the accident". In the combo box is represented in almost all regions of the Russian Federation. If your current location is not listed, mark "Other regions of Russia".

3

After you select the region you will be given an option to select the production of your car. There are only two options: domestic or foreign model.

4

Set your make of car in the next pop-up window. You can choose only from the presented items, but they are listed in full (e.g., the Dodge brand is not).

5

Select the model and series of your car. Please note that separately stated, for example, sedan/hatchback and the number of doors. Specify the year of the car. It begins with 1980 and ends in 2012. Check or uncheck the boxes "body Color – metallic". Confirm.

6

In the new window, select the damaged part of the car, click on the arrow down. Falls a hidden menu where it is necessary to note the actions necessary to repair the damaged parts. Individual lines are functions of the "Tail" and "Color". Click on the icon "to Obtain the settlement."

7

Next, calculate the damage correctly, you will help called to the scene, the expert technician. For this it is necessary to contact the telephone number listed in your insurance policy. Also would be good if there is an opportunity to show the car to the independent expert. In this case, the insurance company will not be able to reduce the size of the payment.

Useful advice

Take pictures of car damage yourself from different angles. Photos can then act as a receipt referred to in the documents of the fault.

# Advice 9: How to calculate profit

As strange as it may sound, but in order to calculate

**profit**, one must first count all the expenses. Because the profits may not at all be on the results of a full cycle of the business. However, even if there is no profit, that's not a reason to despair and stop working. As they say, many entrepreneurs, at first you feed the business, and the business begins to feed you.Instruction

1

To calculate

**profit**in the future to be able to implement the correct financial and managerial decisions, primarily at the outset it is necessary to organize a complete financial accounting. It should reflect all the amounts that you invest in a business (personal or credit funds), proceeds with shipment (if they do not match), as well as all costs that you carry out, article by article (procurement of goods, rental of retail space, shipping, utilities, etc.).2

After a certain period, e.g. one month, keep all the calculations in one table. The first line will allocate the proceeds received for the month, in the following lines specify all the made expenses. If we sum up the total cost, you will be able to find the difference between revenues and costs and, thus, to calculate

**the profit**. However, in this report note that in business practice there are often moments of discrepancy at the time of occurrence of certain liabilities and payment for them. Let's say you took the production, or has shipped the goods, and get paid for it later. In addition, a similar situation may be and to other counterparties, for example, advance payments for rent or electricity. All these points should be taken into consideration to make such a shipment report, that is the time when the obligation arose, not when they were paid to have them in front of the net financial picture of the month.3

You can also calculate

**profit**as a percentage of revenue. This index is called the margin, and analysis of its changes over time helps to make better management decisions. To determine the ROI, divide the amount of your income per month on the amount of the proceeds, and then multiply the result by 100%. For different types of activity characterized by its level of profitability, but on this indicator it is possible to compare your business with other similar.# Advice 10: How to count the number of printed sheets

In the old literature on printing, the term "printed sheet" is not uncommon. He is now almost out of use. In journalism, publishing and other sectors, has long been considered to be

**the number**of text characters. Western and some Russian publishing houses as units often use**the number**of words or the author's list. However, sometimes you need to count**the number of**printed**sheets**in any publication.You will need

- - the actual size of the printing sheet;
- - the number of pages in the publication;
- - the size of the conditional printed sheet:
- - the range;
- calculator.

Instruction

1

Conditional printed sheet is considered to be a sheet format 70x90 cm Conventional newspaper and magazine formats is a multiple of the printed sheet. For example, A2 is a half of the standard unit, A3 — a quarter, and A4 — eighth part. These formats are in widespread use today. However, book and magazine pages can have other dimensions. In addition, modern printing technology allows to put on the same square, different

**amount**of text because you can apply different pins and different layout options.2

Calculate the actual area of the page is exactly the same as you would for any rectangle. Measure and multiply the length and width. It is possible to write ordinary mathematical formula S1=a*b, where S1 is the area existing in the reality of the strips a and b are the length and width. Similarly, calculate the area of the printing sheet, multiplying 70 cm 90. 6 turns out 300 cm2. For convenience, it can be denoted as S2.

3

Find the conversion factor for this edition. It represents the ratio of the actual book pages or newspaper pages to the area of the conventional printing sheet. Find the equation for k=S1/S2. The obtained result is sufficient to round to hundredths.

4

Count

**the number of**printed**sheets**in the entire edition. Count**the number of**book pages or newspaper pages. Multiply the resulting number by a factor of k. This method of calculation is convenient for publications, typed in a standard font on a sheet with the same formatting standard.Useful advice

With the advent of computer technology prepress method of calculation of the texts printed sheets became very inaccurate. About 90 years it was believed that the ordinary newspaper page A3 holds about 16 thousand characters. And then I often was not more than 13 thousand. Modern newspaper page is the same format most often contains from 6 to 10 thousand characters, and sometimes less. Therefore, to determine the volume of the printed sheet is rarely used.

Much more accurate is another old unit of measure — author's sheet. He succeeds primarily because it is considered not from the area, and by the number of characters that allows you to measure virtually any text. In the author's sheet contains 40 000 characters with no spaces. For the poetic text, this 700 rows. In principle, this method differs little from those now used in most newsrooms, publishing houses and translation agencies.

Much more accurate is another old unit of measure — author's sheet. He succeeds primarily because it is considered not from the area, and by the number of characters that allows you to measure virtually any text. In the author's sheet contains 40 000 characters with no spaces. For the poetic text, this 700 rows. In principle, this method differs little from those now used in most newsrooms, publishing houses and translation agencies.