Truffles are harvested in late summer or early fall. Despite the fact that mushrooms begin to grow since the spring, they ripen long enough. Popular places for these fungi – this is a different glade, which gets lots of light, edges oak forest. Found truffle in Prilesie in birch groves, or even in an aspen forest, but less frequently. Almost by chance the fungus can grow in the juniper, walnut or alder thickets. Place a truffle can be distinguished by the fact that the earth is getting a few gray-ash, moss and grass in these areas withered and stunted, sickly and withered.
Usually truffles nest in several pieces. It's a tuber, which is a little reminiscent of a mushroom, it does not have the cap and the stem, the familiar sight of a mushroom. More like potatoes, the surface is yellowish or gray-brown. Some of these mushrooms if they are cut like marble. The pulp is grayish-white or pure white, and the black truffle it eventually darkens to purple-black. These mushrooms look quite unusual, but even more to remember their scent. Very sturdy, does not erode for many years if dried truffle in the sun.
Rare truffle comes to the surface. Sometimes they act almost half of the land, but most are hidden under the ground at a distance of 5-10 cm from the surface. The depth can reach 20 cm or more. The size of the truffle, too, is different, diameter from 2 to 10 cm, or even more.
If clearing your mind "truffle", you should pay attention to the bumps of the earth. Some may lurk a single mushroom, and there will be his family. Looking for truffles at any time of the day. If other mushrooms are harvested in the morning, as they at this time, most fresh and strong, the truffles are equally good at any time of the day, in the evening to find them is even easier.
Truffles is very strong smell, and if the person is using the layer of the earth do not feel that animals and insects feel full. A truffle is often the place you can find near sunset. On a Sunny day yellowish midges can swarm above the mycelium, as smell. It happens also that the land there is a little dug: that animals, including moose, hares, bears, badgers, foxes and squirrels, also trying to find delicious mushroom.
In the past truffles frequently searched with the help of Pets that felt this fungus by the smell. To search, you can train a dog, but you need to have at least one mushroom, so she could remember the smell.
Advice 2 : How to find a truffle
The truffle mushroom is considered a delicacy. In French cuisine dishes with the use of this product are often enough to recall the famous Strasbourg pie, mentioned by A. S. Pushkin. In Russia, found only one species of this mushroom - truffle summer. In France and Italy there are several kinds. Truffle refers to the underground inhabitants, out it's almost not shown. You can find it, but you need to know some signs of the fungus and techniques.
You will need
- - a specially trained dog or pig;
- - picture of truffles.
The mycelium of the truffle is a component of the mycorrhizae of the roots of trees. So look for them near large oaks or birches. Truffles, like other mushrooms, forming a so-called "witches rings", i.e. rings of the fruiting bodies, which surround the root system of the host. If you do not destroy the mycelium, mushrooms, each fruit body will become more and more. The truffle grows in dry places. Of the tree species prefers alder, oak, birch, hazel.
To search for truffles specially trained dogs or pigs. In France, for example, the pigs begin to teach from the age of four months, and then it "works" for a decade. But to find truffles without the help of animals. Find a picture of a truffle, because we need to know exactly what to look for. Truffle is similar in appearance to potato tuber small size, with a rough surface. Eyes on him, of course not, and the color scheme ranges from white to black. To the touch it is hard.
Truffles, like all mushrooms, are found in permanent locations. Mature fruiting body of the fungus appears on the surface and can just lie on the ground. To dig it is not necessary. It also may be half-rose out of the earth and other fruiting bodies. It is easy to determine over the bumps of the earth. The bumps are a bit like wormholes. These mushrooms almost never occur singly. If you find one mushroom, look for next 5-6 pieces.
After heavy rains it is possible to detect rolled out of the land of truffle on the slopes of hills covered with large trees, or in gullies. They can be found on the surface and after a strong wind. You need to consider that truffles prefer sandy and other loose soils. In particular, they like soil with lime content.
Point to the "field" can of truffle flies. They lay their eggs in the ground next to these mushrooms. Truffles they feed their larvae. So if you see near the tree yellowish Roy, you can expect to find immediately and mushrooms.
Don't confuse the false truffle, puffball. About the rain jacket is also covered with thick skin, but it grows on the ground and has roots.
Advice 3 : Famous delicacies: mushrooms truffles
Truffles – the most valuable in the world of mushrooms with a heady, earthy, garlic aroma and unusually delicate flavor is prized by gourmets for centuries and even the ancient Greeks was reckoned to be an aphrodisiac. Of the nearly 70 known varieties of this fungus the most valuable is the white truffle.
Like looking for truffles
How looking for truffles, there is an amazing irony – one of the most expensive foods on the planet can produce, if you enlist the help of an animal that many consider "unclean". Pigs love these mushrooms that can smell their flavor under a layer of earth. Another "joke" of nature, hidden in the truffles, were able to evaluate scientists not long ago, these mushrooms, known for lovers is a fine flavor, the most important component of the smell is dimethyl sulfide. It would seem that such? But this ingredient is "responsible" for the smell of boiled cabbage, which many find too easy and what's more, unpleasant.
Truffles like soft, cracked tubers. They grow at the roots of such trees as oak, chestnut, Linden, poplar, beech and hazel. Sometimes the fungus can be detected at a depth of more than a meter under the ground, but never truffles will not grow outside the shadow cast by the tree branches. Mushrooms grow in the wild throughout Europe, when they "ripen", truffles emit a strong, distinct smell that can be detected by sensitive noses of animals. Gourmet pigs was the first thing people began to use search of delicacies, but "hunt" with them was very difficult. First, pigs are very weighty hunters and they are not so easy to deliver to the place of the search. Secondly, finding the mushroom, they tend to immediately eat. Soon to replace the pigs came specially trained dogs, whose sensitive but not at all inferior to pork Piglet. Once the dog finds a mushroom, he begins to bark loudly and then comes the collector truffles. With the help of special narrow blade with a long handle ditch the mushroom, and then remove it, being careful not to touch with hands, otherwise the truffle will start to rot. If the mushroom is ripe, it buried back to give it a grow. The best specimens of mushrooms weigh more than 100 grams.
Types of truffles
Truffles do not grow in artificial conditions. All attempts to grow them from spores or seeds patted collapse, so the mushrooms harvested in the wild. Depending on where you grew up truffle and what type it belongs to, is assigned the price of mushroom.
The most valuable are white truffles grown in Alba in Piedmont. In fact, it was the mushrooms pale cream-colored marble with white veins. Next in value are considered black truffles from Périgord, France. Followed by Italian black truffles of Spoleto, which actually have a dark brown soft skin, also flecked with white streaks.
How to use truffles
Truffles are used as a flavoring, gradually adding to various dishes, such as omelets, pasta, risotto, and various sauces. To make the truffles more affordable, their flavored olive oil or salt. Although such products still get expensive, they are not as expensive as the mushrooms themselves, moreover, are stored much longer.