The ability to pick up notes by ear cannot be considered separately from other theoretical disciplines. In other words, you cannot find a chord without knowing the notes. Therefore, the first discipline you need to learn basic music theory.
Except for the names of the notes under this subject examines the range of tonalities, keys, the basics of musical language.
Write dictation on solfeggio: from simple to complex four-part monophonic, with the development of hearing. To do this, ask a musician friend or teacher to play on the piano the melody of their 4-8 bars and not looking at the sheet music and on the keyboard, record the melody in the music.
The melody is played 8-12 times, depending on the complexity of the dictation and student's level. Before recording the pupil determines the size and mood, and the teacher calls the tone. In some cases, for the development of absolute hearing, pitch is determined by the student.
If the teacher can not find, play and record dictations in the audio files and play. Be honest with yourself: do not memorize the notes of the melodies.
When selecting hearing dictations from two or more votes, and songs, listen first the lower voice the bass. Songs in variety genres usually (but not always), it plays a take chord. In the selection of songs, among other things, the second time you try to play along with the recording, duplicating bass in accessible tool.
On the basis of a selection of bass tunes and henchmen is much easier: it becomes obvious that the sound of the melody belong to the current chord or non-chord is.
Exercise every day. Pick up completely at least one song a week, but with the development of increase the amount to seven songs. Long breaks in the classroom impact on the development of hearing.
Complicate the task: define hearing not only the chords and the melody, but the instrument. Write out the party each instrument on a separate mill. Sing the melody to harder to remember.