You will need
- - distilled or boiled water;
- - chemical utensils for preparation solution;
- laboratory filter that can be replaced with a blotter or cotton wool;
- - a blank sheet of paper.
For growing a beautiful crystal of the correct form, clean solution. To prepare it you need: distilled or boiled water, chemical glassware for solution preparation, laboratory filter that can be replaced with a blotter or cotton wool, a clean sheet of paper.
To the crystal grew large and beautiful takes a lot of time. This is a complex and lengthy process that requires caution and patience. First you have to prepare small crystal – seed. As soon as the first crystals, you must choose those who have the most correct form or which you like best.
Beaker, fill half with warm water and add small portions of salt. Stir the solution after each portion of matter. As soon as it ceases to dissolve, all again carefully mix. Filter the prepared solution into another glass, where it will grow the crystal, and cover it with paper. Within a week the crystal is considerably older.
You should look out for, so that upon evaporation of the solution the upper part of the crystal was not in the air. It'll ruin him. That this did not happen, add the solution into the tank as needed.
In the process of growth of the main crystal in the solution can appear and grow other crystals that need to be removed at least once in two weeks.
Filter the solution using best laboratory filter, but if not, then you can use the blotter or cotton wool. Than it is denser, so will be cleaner liquid.
Advice 2 : How to grow precious stones
Natural gemstones are mined at times in the deep, dangerous for people areas, in their search, extraction and cutting out a lot of time and effort that makes a rather big and so the prices become even higher. At the same time, synthetic gemstones are exactly the same in their physical and chemical characteristics as the originals, but their production consumes much less effort.
There are many ways of growing gems, but the simplest and most accessible of them is the method of Auguste Vernale. More than a hundred years ago, he invented a way to grow for two or three hours, rubies, weighing 20-30 carats (4-6 grams).
A method of growing stones Vernale is the following: the burner is lowered to the nozzle via an external pipe supplied with hydrogen, and through the inner oxygen. For the production of rubies you will also need a powder of aluminum oxide. Your machine should start funnel where you pour in the oxide, which a few hours will become a jewel. Directly under the funnel is the burner connected to it by pipes, which go oxygen and hydrogen. Below should be the capacity, which will grow your ruby. The apparatus must of course be stable, and the part where the burner is isolated.
According to the method Vernale can be grown not only rubies, and Topaz of various colors. In recent years, the growing synthetic stones "in the kitchen" is gaining popularity, so if at first you find that to construct such a device too hard, remember that the scientist was able to collect a hundred years ago.
Another popular method of growing synthetic crystal gemstones Czochralski method, but for implementation you will need a lab. Its essence consists in the following: the melt of the substance from which you want to obtain precious stones, placed in a crucible of refractory metal is rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten. Then the crucible is heated in a high-frequency inductor. In the alloy, immersing a seed crystal from crystal material of the future, and already are grown synthetically stone of the required diameter. Using this method it is possible to obtain synthetic crystals of corundum or garnet.
Advice 3 : How to get ruby
The problem of production of artificial precious stones, their properties are not inferior to natural, took people a long time ago. Perhaps, since then, they have learned to make jewelry. Method of growing synthetic rubies and some other precious stones were proposed by French scientist Auguste Vermeylen in the late nineteenth century. The developed equipment allows to get rubies in industrial and laboratory conditions.
You will need
- - aluminum oxide;
- - chrome;
- - gas burner;
- - oxygen;
- - hydrogen;
- - the muffle.
The ruby crystal form called corundum. Similar crystalline structure has and sapphire, these two minerals grow in the same way. By itself, the corundum, which is called white sapphire, color does not matter. Ruby is red due to chromium. Sapphire can be not only blue, but also pink, yellow or orange.
To obtain ruby crystals in the laboratory you will need the device Vernale. It is a vertical burner, which is supplied with hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio 2:3. With this gas it is necessary to work very carefully. It is necessary to avoid leakage of oxygen, which uses a gas-tight seal.
For making powder use ammonium alum, as did myself, Vernal. In addition, there is chromium, and in the desired concentration.
Unlike many crystals that can grow just from the solution without any additional conditions, the corundum is formed from a melt powdered alumina with impurities. Carefully prepare the powder. It should be easy to crumble. However, alumina is not necessary to grind to such an extent that it began to evaporate at the slightest heat. The optimal particle size - thousandths of a millimeter.
Burner put into a ceramic muffle, which will prevent the growing crystal from cooling. The inventor of the machine was making a muffle, with window, closed by mica. In modern plants commonly used refractory glass.
In the upper part of the apparatus is a container made of chemical glass, which are connected to 2 tubes. The one located above, oxygen is supplied, and the lower hydrogen. The layer of alumina is between them. The powder should be very fine. In the upper part there is a hammer that easily shakes the container. In the middle of the unit, in the cold part of the flame is a ceramic pin, which falls a drop of melt. She needs to grow the crystal.
A very important point – cooling. The inventor of the artificial synthesis of rubies used for this purpose is water. The experiment was successful, so it can be repeated. The lower part is a ceramic "sleeve". On top of the tube, the bottom of which is a burner, usually a coil, filled with running water.
The process of obtaining a crystal looks like. The powder from the upper reservoir pours through a tube into the fire, where it melts and falls on the pin. There he again becomes solid. Formed bull – particle of a conical shape. It grows its top again falls into the hot part of the flame, where there is a secondary melting. There is a group of crystals, one of which is directed vertex in the direction of greater growth rate. This is the strongest crystal and it will suppress others. The operator can select the "perspective" of the crystal.
The flow of the flame and the powder can be adjusted. For example, in order to increase the diameter of the Boule, it is necessary that the powder began to fall faster. The flame temperature can be increased by feeding oxygen faster. The parameters depend on the crystal what size you need.
We cannot allow sudden temperature changes – this may affect the shape of the crystal.