Advice 1: How to do a content analysis

Content analysis is one of the most important methods of scientific work. Any more or less serious scientific work will always include this method. The successful conduct of the content analysis ensures the success of all scientific work in General.
How to do a content analysis
You will need
  • Research sources
Content analysis is one of the most productive and inexpensive methods. It is used in politics, media, science, medicine, psychology. Thanks to him, obtained informative results that are characterized by objectivity.Content analysis is a kind of exploration of different materials to define your own conclusion. It will be a conclusion about the content of any publication, or its statistics. For the purposes of analysis there are two types – quantitative or qualitative content analysis. Quantitative analysis will be the calculation of any data on publication statistics (number of words, tables, phrases and other text options). Qualitative analysis will be the calculation of any data, facts, important for the researcher and his work.
Any content analysis consists of 3 stages:-definition of object of analysis;-quantitative counting of references about the object of study, identifying interdependencies and connections;-interpretation and evaluation of data, identification of perspectives in the study or study object.
Content analysis aims at studying the obvious materials and to identify the real meaning in the text. In addition to the usual calculations are widely used complex statistical techniques (e.g. correlation).
Exploring a particular problem for analysis, you should choose the work not only of a particular author. It is necessary to find other sources on the topic and conduct their analysis and to apply the comparative method of research.You should also take into account the fact that the analysis relies on the judgments of a specific researcher, because it is not always possible to speak about the objectivity of the study. The more researchers analysis of a single source, the greater the likelihood of obtaining a high level of objectivity of the study. This is due to the fact that in the end more people are coming to the consensus.
To conduct the content analysis of the most important is the consideration of the contextual content of the object of study.

Advice 2: How to conduct a content analysis

Content analysis is a method of quantitative analysis of text documents, widely used in Humanities and social Sciences. Its essence lies in the fact that with the help of counting semantic units reliably determine the sense and direction of the specific text message.
How to conduct a content analysis
As the object of study can be any document that contains text messages. In particular, newspaper articles, public speeches, public and political figures, books, answers inthe survey's questionnaires, diaries, letters, official statements, etc. , a Content analysis can be carried out both manual and automatic way. The second option is used for exploring large amounts of textual data and require computers and special statistical programs.
To conduct an independent content analysis, without the use of automated means of processing, it is first necessary to define an array of data that will be working. For example, if you expect analysis of press coverage of regional election campaign, then the required sample will be all the newspaper articles on this topic for the selected period.
The second step in the procedure of content analysis – selection of the semantic units relevant to the problem under study. As semantic units can be single words, names, phrases that carry key meaning. For example, in the context of an electoral campaign of such units can be the names of the candidates of the phrase "modernization of economy", "small business development", "struggle for power" etc. And selected semantic units must be typical for all studied texts.
The next stage is one of the most important in the whole process of content analysis. This codification of text units. Its essence lies in the development of rules mapping the semantic units with a list of categories of analysis. The result of this phase of codification is to develop a codifier, which includes not only a list of the observed indicators, but also information about the document in which they are present. If we are talking about newspaper articles here will include the publication name, city, issue date, format, number of pages, page placement, and the like.
After sampling messages, the selection of the semantic units, and creating the send, go directly to the analysis of texts. In practice, this is reflected in the compilation of a dictionary in which each observation (the semantic unit) refers to a particular type or class in accordance with the rules of the codifier. Then made a quantitative calculation of the use of all semantic units. The important point is the attribution key references specific evaluations (positive, negative or neutral). In other words we need enough thin ranking. As ranking methods traditionally used in the scaling by pairwise comparison method or the so-called Q-sorting. To learn more about both of the mentioned methods in the textbooks in applied sociology or political science.
The procedure is performed in the content analysis quantitative calculation of the received data and calculating the arithmetic mean of the evaluation scale for each case. Then, the resulting average scores are ranked in a certain way.
Is the advice useful?