You will need
- Garden saw
- Rag rope
- Durable twine
- Garden knife
- Nails 45 mm
Start forming a "skeleton" of the two-year seedling Apple trees in the spring, not yet blossomed buds. Need to lay the trunk (the part of the trunk from the root neck to the first skeletal branches at the bottom of the crown). It is necessary to remove branches growing below 50 cm (vigorous varieties) or 70-80 cm (dwarf).
Leave the Central escape-guide – it should be visible at the young seedling. Choose 3 main (skeletal) branches from different sides of the trunk, separated from it at an angle of 45 to 60 degrees. The distance between each skeletal branch should be about 15 cm
Shorten the conductor and the branches of the skeleton tree. Typically, the Central escape gardeners help you rise above the main branches to a height of about 20 cm, the skeletal branches are cut to 1/3 of its original length. However, carefully read the characteristics of specific varieties: the process of shortening depends on the ability of stone fruit cultures are faster or slower to form shoots. So, malefetsane Apple (such as "Chinese striped") are pruned twice; strongly ramified ("Autumn stripes", etc.). – one-third.
Do not touch the small, poorly growing branches – eventually, they will bring you a great harvest. But all the major intermediate branches to be careful to give a nearly horizontal position, fixing their rag ropes. So they have to grow up until the desired angle is not stabiliziruemost. If the interval of the crown branches very much part of their cut, leave the shoots to 3-4 buds.
Get rid of the branches-competitors - those that are the same in magnitude and strength growth. Cut each half, and after a couple of years cut them at the base of branching ("ring"). The growth of young Apple trees, ensure that the conductor did not appear competitors. Only if the Central branch will break or will not grow, it will have to be replaced by a stronger competitor lower crown layer.
Continue pruning every year too growing up vertical shoots. Do not allow the formation of very rare (but too close!) Apple crown. Should form as many flower buds. When your tree will be about 4 meters in height, the conductor must be folded and translate on the side branch. Do the same with the other branches of the upper crown – fold to the periphery. Fasten them with a nail (45 mm) at the base of the trunk and strong twine. Generally finally form the crown of the tree is possible within 5-6 years.
If boughs are located far from each other, they will develop approximately the same. Ensure the center conductor is always towered over them. Skeletal branch of lower layer must be longer than the same, taller growing branches.