You will need
- You will need: water, salt, sulphuric acid concentrated. Equipment: two glass containers with lids, tube, or hose, a pot, a heating element (the plate), hydrometer.
Take the lid from the first container and make a hole in it, insert it in the tube, it should fit snugly in this hole. The lid from the second tank too, hole, but this time the tube should enter into it freely, the necessary clearance. In a pan type normal water from the tap, she will play the role of a water bath. Pour into the second tank of distilled water (the smaller the quicker we get the acid concentration and reduce the ingredients) and cover with a lid.
Put a pot of water on the stove wait until the water becomes warm, then in the first vessel add salt and pour sulphuric acid in equal amounts. Start reaction with release of hydrogen chloride, immediately tightly close the container lid which is tightly inserted tube and place it in a water bath. The other end of the tube is placed in the hole of the lid of the second receptacle, so that it does not touch the surface of the water. The process has begun.
In the interaction of salt with sulfuric acid, a reaction takes place with evolution of gas of "hydrogen chloride" which enters the tube from the first container (reactor) to the second container of water. Further, the gas dissolves in water and forms hydrochloric acid. In the same volume of water can dissolve about five hundred volumes of hydrogen chloride. This gas is heavier than air and that leaving the tube falls down saturating and increasing the concentration of hydrochloric acid. A hydrometer tests the density of the solution.
The manufacture of hydrochloric acid the process is not quite safe. Don't forget about protection equipment (gloves, glasses). A mixture of acid and salt should not exceed in height more than one third of capacity (the reaction mixture usprivacy begins to rise, don't let her get to the tube, reduce the temperature of the process). As Hermetica close the lid of the first container and preferably to do all this in a well ventilated area. Good luck.
For the purity of the process, it is desirable to have a glass pipe, U-shape, but in its absence you can use any rubber hose, though in this case the acid may collect impurities. Concentrated sulfuric acid can be obtained by evaporation of water from the car of the electrolyte. As the tanks it is convenient to use a pharmacy bottle on a drip from under of glucose, furatsilina etc.
Advice 2 : How to get nitric acid
Nitric acid is a strong acid, it dissolves in such metals as copper and silver, and mixed with hydrochloric acid, dissolves even gold and platinum. Basically, it is used in the manufacture of fertilizer. But there are times that it is needed in the home, and you can buy it in hardware stores is not possible, therefore, sometimes have to cook it.
You will need
- Sulfuric acid, sodium nitrate, flask, burner.
Pour in a glass flask with 90 grams of sodium nitrate (sodium nitrate). Pour 100 grams of concentrated sulfuric acid (you can take and dilute acid, but the stronger sulphuric acid, the stronger will be nitrogen) and shake briefly.
Next, close the flask with the lid and heat the mixture on a water bath, keep the temperature in the range of 80 degrees. In the process, in a closed flask would appear the gas is nitrogen dioxide. When sodium nitrate is completely dissolved in sulfuric acid, off the heat, let the liquid cool.
After cooling, the flask is nitric acid mixed with sodium sulfate, these substances must be separated. Remove the bulb cover and normal wear on the lid with a vapor tube. The second end of the tube is put into another flask with cover which put in cold water. In the cap of the second bulb, for security purposes, insert another pipe and put on her normal bouncy ball.
Put the flask with the mixture on the burner and heat the mixture to a boil. From the first flask, the acid will evaporate, leaving a residue of sodium sulfate, and the second flask will condense. After the process, allow the acid to cool, pour it into a glass container and close the lid.
Use the tools protection protect your eyes and skin. Try not to inhale nitrogen dioxide, it is harmful.
Concentrated sulfuric acid can be obtained by evaporation of battery electrolyte. Instead of sodium nitrate you can use ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrate), it is sold in gardening shops, but the acid is worse. More sodium nitrate can be obtained by boiling a mixture of solutions of ammonium nitrate and soda ash or baking soda. Do it outdoors, because it will stand out ammonia.